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Cake day

20 Aug 2017
3
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 day
'Blowing from a gun', as [G.C. Stent describes it](https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vxuSORJ-Tv8C&pg=PA77&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false), is when: 'The prisoner is generally tied to a gun with the upper part of the small of his back resting against the muzzle. When the gun is fired, his head is seen to go straight up into the air some forty or fifty feet; the arms fly off right and left, high up in the air, and fall at, perhaps, a hundred yards distance; the legs drop to the ground beneath the muzzle of the gun; and the body is literally blown away altogether, not a vestige being seen.' Below are some examples of this method of execution being utilised by the British in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. 'The Commission punished the rebel sepoys of Indore thus... 21 persons were blown away by guns...' (*Madhya Pradesh District Gazetteers: Indore*, p.108) [Allen's Indian Mail](https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JrgOAAAAQAAJ&redir_esc=y) gives various accounts as well.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 2 days
The brave soul halting the Dutch in their eternal quest for spices is [Marthanda Varma](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marthanda_Varma), King of [Travancore](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travancore), who defeated the Dutch at the [Battle of Colachel](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Colachel) in August 1741. Travancore had begun to expand its territory throughout the 1730s, threatening the influence of the Dutch as Varma convinced neighbouring states to abandon their monopoly contracts with the Dutch. Their defeat at Colachel hastened the decline of the [Dutch East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company), and essentially left the door open for the [British East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company) to take power in the Indian subcontinent.
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166
Posted by u/johnlen1n 2 days
[From](https://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/weider/c_jews.html) the removal of Italian ghettos, a [manifesto](https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/napoleon-bonaparte) on a [Jewish homeland](http://www.mideastweb.org/napoleon1799.htm) in Palestine (although that could have been a propaganda piece) and the passing of the '[Infamous Decree](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infamous_Decree)' absolving debt, Napoleon and his policies have been seen as a great force of emancipation. Was it all to spread revolutionary ideals, or just a way of maintaining order with ethnic minorities; it's a topic still debated to this day.
33 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 2 days
'Blowing from a gun', as [G.C. Stent describes it](https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vxuSORJ-Tv8C&pg=PA77&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false), is when: 'The prisoner is generally tied to a gun with the upper part of the small of his back resting against the muzzle. When the gun is fired, his head is seen to go straight up into the air some forty or fifty feet; the arms fly off right and left, high up in the air, and fall at, perhaps, a hundred yards distance; the legs drop to the ground beneath the muzzle of the gun; and the body is literally blown away altogether, not a vestige being seen.' Below are some examples of this method of execution being utilised by the British in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. 'The Commission punished the rebel sepoys of Indore thus... 21 persons were blown away by guns...' (*Madhya Pradesh District Gazetteers: Indore*, p.108) [Allen's Indian Mail](https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JrgOAAAAQAAJ&redir_esc=y) gives various accounts as well.
2 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 2 days
The brave soul halting the Dutch in their eternal quest for spices is [Marthanda Varma](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marthanda_Varma), King of [Travancore](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travancore), who defeated the Dutch at the [Battle of Colachel](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Colachel) in August 1741. Travancore had begun to expand its territory throughout the 1730s, threatening the influence of the Dutch as Varma convinced neighbouring states to abandon their monopoly contracts with the Dutch. Their defeat at Colachel hastened the decline of the [Dutch East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company), and essentially left the door open for the [British East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company) to take power in the Indian subcontinent.
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6
Posted by u/johnlen1n 2 days
'[The soldiers of the 1511th](https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/events-global-african-history/the-riot-of-bamber-bridge-1943/) were welcomed in local establishments, and this did not sit well with white American soldiers who brought their racist ideals with them. When white military police officers insisted that a local pub owner segregate his establishment, the owner replied he would. However, when the MPs returned the next day, they were met with “Blacks Only” signs at three village pubs, sending a clear message to the MPs that their racism was not welcome. British barmaids told white soldiers to wait their turn when they assumed they would be served before black soldiers.'
4 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 2 days
The brave soul halting the Dutch in their eternal quest for spices is [Marthanda Varma](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marthanda_Varma), King of [Travancore](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travancore), who defeated the Dutch at the [Battle of Colachel](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Colachel) in August 1741. Travancore had begun to expand its territory throughout the 1730s, threatening the influence of the Dutch as Varma convinced neighbouring states to abandon their monopoly contracts with the Dutch. Their defeat at Colachel hastened the decline of the [Dutch East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company), and essentially left the door open for the [British East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company) to take power in the Indian subcontinent.
1 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 2 days
[From](https://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/weider/c_jews.html) the removal of Italian ghettos, a [manifesto](https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/napoleon-bonaparte) on a [Jewish homeland](http://www.mideastweb.org/napoleon1799.htm) in Palestine (although that could have been a propaganda piece) and the passing of the '[Infamous Decree](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infamous_Decree)' absolving debt, Napoleon and his policies have been seen as a great force of emancipation. Was it all to spread revolutionary ideals, or just a way of maintaining order with ethnic minorities; it's a topic still debated to this day.
2 Comments Share Save
6
Posted by u/johnlen1n 2 days
In [1998](https://www.slashfilm.com/sony-marvel-deal/), Yair Landau, an executive at Sony Pictures, was given the important task of securing the rights to Spider-Man films. They already had the DVD rights, but needed the rest in order to proceed with their planned project. Landau approached Marvel, still reeling from their bankruptcy two years earlier, who were starting to make their own movie deals. Ike Perlmutter, at the helm of Marvel, proposed to Landau a [very lucrative deal](https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/what-sony-bought-marvels-movie-rights-1998-1085272); for just $25 million, Sony could get the whole Marvel package. Thor, Iron Man; you name it! Now, in 2021, this seems like the deal of the century, but for Sony it sounded like a waste of time. Their response, as Landau recalled in an interview, was '[Nobody gives a shit](https://bleedingcool.com/movies/sony-marvel-roster-25-million-1998/) about any of the other Marvel characters. Go back and do a deal for Spider-Man'. That's exactly what Yair Landau did, netting the web-slinger for $10 million and 5% of the film revenue for Marvel. As the 21st century dawned, a stream of superhero films were released, including 'Spider-Man', 'Blade' and an 'X-Men' film or two. Yet in 2008, Marvel stepped up to the plate with 'Iron Man', and the rest is history...
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4
Posted by u/johnlen1n 2 days
It's December 1941, and the Japanese have just launched an attack on Pearl Harbour. With the United States now drawn into this nasty global conflict business, citizens were ready to do their patriotic duty, even if they were chilling out in Havana drinking and fishing. [Ernest Hemingway](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway) would fight the war on his own terms; by patrolling the Caribbean Sea in the 'Pilar' and hunting down U-boats. [Hemingway had crossed the Atlantic](https://medium.com/practice-of-history-fall-2018/the-spanish-civil-war-through-the-eyes-of-ernest-hemingway-2de4faee03ca) to report on the [Spanish Civil War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War), proving to be a source of inspiration for his work '[For Whom the Bell Tolls](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls)', as well as his play '[The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_and_the_First_Forty-Nine_Stories)'. Reporting for the North American Newspaper Alliance, he produced 31 dispatches from Spain and crafted his '[iceberg theory](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory)' i.e. reveal details steadily so the readers have to keep reading. Speaking of taking things steady, that's exactly what Ernest did in the initial stages of American involvement in the war, but by the summer of 1942 Hemingway was ready to do his bit. [Ernest had a plan](https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/05/hemingway-goes-sub-chasing/); armed to the teeth with machine guns, bazookas and grenades from the government, Hemingway would patrol the Caribbean Sea and unleash hell upon any U-boats that dared to challenge the naval superiority of the 'Pilar'. He was fascinated by the [Q-ships](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-ship) and their tactics of deceiving U-boats during the First World War, with civilian ships disguised and armed to pounce. Hemingway was determined to prove that he was willing to contribute after his time in Europe (he had served as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross, in addition to his time in Spain), and his confidence was abundant. The 'Pilar' would be equipped with a specially made bomb atop its flying bridge, which would be tossed overboard once the U-boat had been riddled with gunfire. Yet sub-chasing proved to be a fruitless venture for Hemingway, despite one close encounter when a U-boat was spotted, the crew leaped to their stations... and the [U-boat left uninterested](https://sofrep.com/news/ernest-hemingway-u-boat-hunter/). The crew did manage to hurl off a few insults, before Ernest asked his son Gregory to fix him a gin and tonic (when not hunting down German U-boats, the crew drunk... a lot). Hemingway would soon abandon his ventures out at sea, and [would soon travel to Normandy](http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-arts-and-humanities/10.22492.ijah.6.1.06.pdf) to witness the D-Day landings and would see the liberation of Paris in August 1944 ([did he liberate the Ritz](https://www.thelocal.fr/20140822/when-hemingway-took-back-the-ritz-bar/)? Probably unlikely) and even the Battle of the Bulge, although illness meant he missed the majority of the fighting. Regardless, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery, going on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and was [under observation by the FBI](https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/01/hemingway-fbi/) due to his continued presence in Cuba. He would commit suicide in 1961, as paranoia invoked by the FBI drove him to madness.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 2 days
In 1968, [China went mad for mangoes](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/57937/how-mao-accidentally-turned-mangoes-divine-objects-cultural-revolution). After Worker-Peasant Mao Zedong Thought Propaganda Teams had taken on a Red Guard faction occupying Tsinghua University, Mao gifted them a crate of mangoes he had receive from Pakistan's foreign minister Mian Arshad Hussain, which the peasantry saw a sign that [Mao favoured the working class](https://wiki.secretgeek.net/mango-fever) over the Red Guard. The Cultural Revolution had begun two years prior that Mao envisioned would counteract the capitalist influences tainting China, and Mao's regifting was a sign of Mao's benevolence and goodwill. In truth, Mao wasn't a fan of the messy mangoes. [The mango craze](https://asiahousearts.org/cult-mango-cultural-revolution/) swept across the country, with the mangoes split up between the peasants, leading to groups bathing them in formaldehyde, encasing them in wax, or sealing them in glass. When one began to rot, it was turned into a broth, which was probably consumed before a mango parade. Some, however, did not understand the fuss, and it would turn deadly. In a small Fulin village, the local dentist Dr Han commented how the mighty mango looked like a sweet potato. Alfreda Murck, in her book '[Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution](https://www.amazon.co.uk/Maos-Golden-Mangoes-Cultural-Revolution/dp/3858817325)', notes that: '[His frankness](https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/the-mao-mango-cult-of-1968/) was called blasphemy; he was arrested as a counterrevolutionary. He was soon tried and, to the dismay of the village, found guilty, paraded through the streets on the back of a truck as an example to the masses, taken to the edge of town, and executed with one shot to the head.' Rule number one; never... EVER... criticise the mango!
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512
Posted by u/johnlen1n 3 days
[In April 1917](https://www.worldwar1centennial.org/index.php/communicate/press-media/wwi-centennial-news/3929-doughnut-girls-the-women-who-fried-donuts-and-dodged-bombs-on-the-front-lines-of-world-war-i.html), the United States entered the ongoing conflict that ha engulfed Europe, ready to do their part and defeat the Central Powers. [Evangeline Booth](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evangeline_Booth), Commander of the Salvation Army in the USA, put the Salvation Army onto a war-service basis, and when Lieutenant-Colonel William Barker requested that the United States '[send over some Lassies](http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/salvhist.htm)', Booth was ready. She handpicked 11 officers to head to the western front, and provide the necessary support, including providing clothes an freshly baked goods. Two volunteers, Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance, agreed that they would [make and serve doughnuts](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/donut-girls-wwi-helped-fill-soldiers-bellies-and-get-women-vote-180962864/) in October 1917. With only flour, sugar, lard, baking powder, cinnamon and canned milk, the pair prepared doughnuts in their hut, using helmets to fry their tasty treats. [On the first day](http://vintagenewsdaily.com/doughnut-girls-the-women-who-fried-donuts-and-dodged-bombs-on-the-front-lines-of-world-war-i/), only 150 were served, doubling the number the next day and, once fully operational, could crank out up to 9000 a day. These Salvation Army volunteers, which totalled 250, were nicknamed '[Donut Lassies](https://centralusa.salvationarmy.org/metro/donut-day-history/)', and would be credited for making the doughnut popular over in the USA once the soldiers returned home. In 1938, Chicago's Salvation Army started '[National Doughnut Day](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Doughnut_Day)' on the first Friday of every June to commemorate the service of the 250 volunteers who headed across the Atlantic to boost the spirits and morale of American soldiers.
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2.2k
Posted by u/johnlen1n 3 days
'[The soldiers of the 1511th](https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/events-global-african-history/the-riot-of-bamber-bridge-1943/) were welcomed in local establishments, and this did not sit well with white American soldiers who brought their racist ideals with them. When white military police officers insisted that a local pub owner segregate his establishment, the owner replied he would. However, when the MPs returned the next day, they were met with “Blacks Only” signs at three village pubs, sending a clear message to the MPs that their racism was not welcome. British barmaids told white soldiers to wait their turn when they assumed they would be served before black soldiers.' Hope this doesn't lead to any [scuffles](https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/85/a3677385.shtml) and [court martial convictions](https://theconversation.com/black-troops-were-welcome-in-britain-but-jim-crow-wasnt-the-race-riot-of-one-night-in-june-1943-98120) based on mutiny because white MPs see one black soldier who was '[improperly dressed](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bamber_Bridge)'...
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
It's December 1941, and the Japanese have just launched an attack on Pearl Harbour. With the United States now drawn into this nasty global conflict business, citizens were ready to do their patriotic duty, even if they were chilling out in Havana drinking and fishing. [Ernest Hemingway](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway) would fight the war on his own terms; by patrolling the Caribbean Sea in the 'Pilar' and hunting down U-boats. [Hemingway had crossed the Atlantic](https://medium.com/practice-of-history-fall-2018/the-spanish-civil-war-through-the-eyes-of-ernest-hemingway-2de4faee03ca) to report on the [Spanish Civil War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War), proving to be a source of inspiration for his work '[For Whom the Bell Tolls](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls)', as well as his play '[The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_and_the_First_Forty-Nine_Stories)'. Reporting for the North American Newspaper Alliance, he produced 31 dispatches from Spain and crafted his '[iceberg theory](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory)' i.e. reveal details steadily so the readers have to keep reading. Speaking of taking things steady, that's exactly what Ernest did in the initial stages of American involvement in the war, but by the summer of 1942 Hemingway was ready to do his bit. [Ernest had a plan](https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/05/hemingway-goes-sub-chasing/); armed to the teeth with machine guns, bazookas and grenades from the government, Hemingway would patrol the Caribbean Sea and unleash hell upon any U-boats that dared to challenge the naval superiority of the 'Pilar'. He was fascinated by the [Q-ships](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-ship) and their tactics of deceiving U-boats during the First World War, with civilian ships disguised and armed to pounce. Hemingway was determined to prove that he was willing to contribute after his time in Europe (he had served as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross, in addition to his time in Spain), and his confidence was abundant. The 'Pilar' would be equipped with a specially made bomb atop its flying bridge, which would be tossed overboard once the U-boat had been riddled with gunfire. Yet sub-chasing proved to be a fruitless venture for Hemingway, despite one close encounter when a U-boat was spotted, the crew leaped to their stations... and the [U-boat left uninterested](https://sofrep.com/news/ernest-hemingway-u-boat-hunter/). The crew did manage to hurl off a few insults, before Ernest asked his son Gregory to fix him a gin and tonic (when not hunting down German U-boats, the crew drunk... a lot). Hemingway would soon abandon his ventures out at sea, and [would soon travel to Normandy](http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-arts-and-humanities/10.22492.ijah.6.1.06.pdf) to witness the D-Day landings and would see the liberation of Paris in August 1944 ([did he liberate the Ritz](https://www.thelocal.fr/20140822/when-hemingway-took-back-the-ritz-bar/)? Probably unlikely) and even the Battle of the Bulge, although illness meant he missed the majority of the fighting. Regardless, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery, going on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and was [under observation by the FBI](https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/01/hemingway-fbi/) due to his continued presence in Cuba. He would commit suicide in 1961, as paranoia invoked by the FBI drove him to madness.
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250
Posted by u/johnlen1n 3 days
'But the Duce underestimated 'the German Mussolini' and even thought him a bit crazy. Hitler's *Mein Kampf* was brushed off as 'a boring tome that I have never been able to read' and his ideas as 'little more than commonplace clichés' *Quoted from Denis Mack Smith, 'Mussolini: A Biography;, p.172*
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
In [1998](https://www.slashfilm.com/sony-marvel-deal/), Yair Landau, an executive at Sony Pictures, was given the important task of securing the rights to Spider-Man films. They already had the DVD rights, but needed the rest in order to proceed with their planned project. Landau approached Marvel, still reeling from their bankruptcy two years earlier, who were starting to make their own movie deals. Ike Perlmutter, at the helm of Marvel, proposed to Landau a [very lucrative deal](https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/what-sony-bought-marvels-movie-rights-1998-1085272); for just $25 million, Sony could get the whole Marvel package. Thor, Iron Man; you name it! Now, in 2021, this seems like the deal of the century, but for Sony it sounded like a waste of time. Their response, as Landau recalled in an interview, was '[Nobody gives a shit](https://bleedingcool.com/movies/sony-marvel-roster-25-million-1998/) about any of the other Marvel characters. Go back and do a deal for Spider-Man'. That's exactly what Yair Landau did, netting the web-slinger for $10 million and 5% of the film revenue for Marvel. As the 21st century dawned, a stream of superhero films were released, including 'Spider-Man', 'Blade' and an 'X-Men' film or two. Yet in 2008, Marvel stepped up to the plate with 'Iron Man', and the rest is history...
1 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
[In April 1917](https://www.worldwar1centennial.org/index.php/communicate/press-media/wwi-centennial-news/3929-doughnut-girls-the-women-who-fried-donuts-and-dodged-bombs-on-the-front-lines-of-world-war-i.html), the United States entered the ongoing conflict that ha engulfed Europe, ready to do their part and defeat the Central Powers. [Evangeline Booth](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evangeline_Booth), Commander of the Salvation Army in the USA, put the Salvation Army onto a war-service basis, and when Lieutenant-Colonel William Barker requested that the United States '[send over some Lassies](http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/salvhist.htm)', Booth was ready. She handpicked 11 officers to head to the western front, and provide the necessary support, including providing clothes an freshly baked goods. Two volunteers, Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance, agreed that they would [make and serve doughnuts](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/donut-girls-wwi-helped-fill-soldiers-bellies-and-get-women-vote-180962864/) in October 1917. With only flour, sugar, lard, baking powder, cinnamon and canned milk, the pair prepared doughnuts in their hut, using helmets to fry their tasty treats. [On the first day](http://vintagenewsdaily.com/doughnut-girls-the-women-who-fried-donuts-and-dodged-bombs-on-the-front-lines-of-world-war-i/), only 150 were served, doubling the number the next day and, once fully operational, could crank out up to 9000 a day. These Salvation Army volunteers, which totalled 250, were nicknamed '[Donut Lassies](https://centralusa.salvationarmy.org/metro/donut-day-history/)', and would be credited for making the doughnut popular over in the USA once the soldiers returned home. In 1938, Chicago' Salvation Army started '[National Doughnut Day](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Doughnut_Day)' on the first Friday of every June to commemorate the service of the 250 volunteers who headed across the Atlantic to boost the spirits and morale of American soldiers.
2 Comments Share Save
2
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
In [1998](https://www.slashfilm.com/sony-marvel-deal/), Yair Landau, an executive at Sony Pictures, was given the important task of securing the rights to Spider-Man films. They already had the DVD rights, but needed the rest in order to proceed with their planned project. Landau approached Marvel, still reeling from their bankruptcy two years earlier, who were starting to make their own movie deals. Ike Perlmutter, at the helm of Marvel, proposed to Landau a [very lucrative deal](https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/what-sony-bought-marvels-movie-rights-1998-1085272); for just $25 million, Sony could get the whole Marvel package. Thor, Iron Man; you name it! Now, in 2021, this seems like the deal of the century, but for Sony it sounded like a waste of time. Their response, as Landau recalled in an interview, was '[Nobody gives a shit](https://bleedingcool.com/movies/sony-marvel-roster-25-million-1998/) about any of the other Marvel characters. Go back and do a deal for Spider-Man'. That's exactly what Yair Landau did, netting the web-slinger for $10 million and 5% of the film revenue for Marvel. As the 21st century dawned, a stream of superhero films were released, including 'Spider-Man', 'Blade' and an 'X-Men' film or two. Yet in 2008, Marvel stepped up to the plate with 'Iron Man', and the rest is history...
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
The [East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company), established in 1600, had extended its influence over the Indian subcontinent across two centuries, dominating trade and establishing its own rule over the population. Defeating the French during the [Seven Years' War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War) all but confirmed British domination in the region, allowing the EIC to wield power in the region. The nature of British superiority was enforced in the structure of the Indian Army, with the sepoys viewed as uncivilised and in need of some [good ol' Westernisation](https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Cascade/index.html?appid=7d662c53868942c98c4583109c5d521a). Through methods such as the '[Doctrine of lapse](https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/doctrine-of-lapse-meaning-objective-its-impact-1443009076-1)' (i.e. annexing land from Indian princes if they died heirless or abdicated), British power was cemented, allowing religious and economic reforms that undermined traditional Indian culture. This caused [feelings of distaste](https://www.teslashub.com/2019/01/revolt-of-1857-its-causes-and-effects.html) towards the British, especially when a [rumour](https://www.thoughtco.com/the-indian-revolt-of-1857-195476) surfaced that cartridges for the new Enfield rifles were covered in cow fat. Sepoys would have to bite the ends off these cartridges to load their rifles, and considering cows are sacred in both Islam and Hinduism, this might cause a bit of backlash. In [May 1857](http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/indian_rebellion_01.shtml), sepoys that were part of the Bengal Army garrisoned in Meerut killed their British officers and set off what has been called the '[Indian Mutiny](https://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny)', or the 'First War of Independence' in some circles ([the name](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857) is hotly debated among scholars). The rebels headed towards Delhi and took the city, which in turn inspired further risings across the region against the British. The Mughal emperor, [Bahadur Shah II](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahadur_Shah_Zafar), was declared Emperor of India after having had his power and prestige greatly diminished by the British, with the Mughal Empire now confined to Delhi. A large number of Indian princes, however, did not side with the rebellion, and unrest was focused in the northern regions rather than across the entire subcontinent. [The British were able to quickly rally](https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/the-sepoy-rebellion-and-the-threat-to-british-india/) after the shock of open rebellion, with campaigns in Lucknow and other regions finally bringing an end to the ordeal by November 1858. The punishments handed down by the British ([some rebels were fired out of cannon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blowing_from_a_gun), for example), but it proved to be a watershed moment in relations. The EIC was abolished, and the [British Raj](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Raj) was declared; the Crown was now in control. The subcontinent would not gain their independence until 1947, with the partition between India, East and West Pakistan causing [just a *few* problems](https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial)...
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
The [Taj Mahal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taj_Mahal), commissioned by [Shah Jahan](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shah_Jahan) as a mausoleum for his wife [Mumtaz Mahal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumtaz_Mahal), took 22 years to build and required the efforts of around [20,000 workers](https://www.wonders-of-the-world.net/Taj-Mahal/Workers-of-the-Taj-Mahal.php) to complete this project. A [popular myth](https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/travel/2018/06/india-discovering-taj-mahal) surrounds the mausoleum, as it is said that Shah Jahan, once the Taj Mahal was complete, proceeded to remove the hands of his masons and workers so that they could never work on such an elaborate architectural venture again. However, evidence suggests that it is just [a myth](https://www.tajmahal.org.uk/legends/mutilation.html). Archaeological finds suggest that no mass amputation took place, and there are no records of this order taking place. Indeed, Shah Jahan's reign ushered in the '[golden age](https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-tcc-worldciv2/chapter/mughal-empire-history/)' of Mughal architecture, with his time on the throne [seeing the construction](https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-times/busting-the-taj-fake-news/articleshow/61166015.cms) of the [Red Fort](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moti_Masjid_(Red_Fort)), the [Masjid-i Jehan Numa](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jama_Masjid,_Delhi) and the [Lahore Fort](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahore_Fort). A lack of workers and master builders would have made that a tad difficult.
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Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
'But the Duce underestimated 'the German Mussolini' and even thought him a bit crazy. Hitler's *Mein Kampf* was brushed off as 'a boring tome that I have never been able to read' and his ideas as 'little more than commonplace clichés' *Quoted from Denis Mack Smith, 'Mussolini: A Biography;, p.172*
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Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
It's December 1941, and the Japanese have just launched an attack on Pearl Harbour. With the United States now drawn into this nasty global conflict business, citizens were ready to do their patriotic duty, even if they were chilling out in Havana drinking and fishing. [Ernest Hemingway](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway) would fight the war on his own terms; by patrolling the Caribbean Sea in the 'Pilar' and hunting down U-boats. [Hemingway had crossed the Atlantic](https://medium.com/practice-of-history-fall-2018/the-spanish-civil-war-through-the-eyes-of-ernest-hemingway-2de4faee03ca) to report on the [Spanish Civil War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War), proving to be a source of inspiration for his work '[For Whom the Bell Tolls](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls)', as well as his play '[The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_and_the_First_Forty-Nine_Stories)'. Reporting for the North American Newspaper Alliance, he produced 31 dispatches from Spain and crafted his '[iceberg theory](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory)' i.e. reveal details steadily so the readers have to keep reading. Speaking of taking things steady, that's exactly what Ernest did in the initial stages of American involvement in the war, but by the summer of 1942 Hemingway was ready to do his bit. [Ernest had a plan](https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/05/hemingway-goes-sub-chasing/); armed to the teeth with machine guns, bazookas and grenades from the government, Hemingway would patrol the Caribbean Sea and unleash hell upon any U-boats that dared to challenge the naval superiority of the 'Pilar'. He was fascinated by the [Q-ships](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-ship) and their tactics of deceiving U-boats during the First World War, with civilian ships disguised and armed to pounce. Hemingway was determined to prove that he was willing to contribute after his time in Europe (he had served as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross, in addition to his time in Spain), and his confidence was abundant. The 'Pilar' would be equipped with a specially made bomb atop its flying bridge, which would be tossed overboard once the U-boat had been riddled with gunfire. Yet sub-chasing proved to be a fruitless venture for Hemingway, despite one close encounter when a U-boat was spotted, the crew leaped to their stations... and the [U-boat left uninterested](https://sofrep.com/news/ernest-hemingway-u-boat-hunter/). The crew did manage to hurl off a few insults, before Ernest asked his son Gregory to fix him a gin and tonic (when not hunting down German U-boats, the crew drunk... a lot). Hemingway would soon abandon his ventures out at sea, and [would soon travel to Normandy](http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-arts-and-humanities/10.22492.ijah.6.1.06.pdf) to witness the D-Day landings and would see the liberation of Paris in August 1944 ([did he liberate the Ritz](https://www.thelocal.fr/20140822/when-hemingway-took-back-the-ritz-bar/)? Probably unlikely) and even the Battle of the Bulge, although illness meant he missed the majority of the fighting. Regardless, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery, going on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and was [under observation by the FBI](https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/01/hemingway-fbi/) due to his continued presence in Cuba. He would commit suicide in 1961, as paranoia invoked by the FBI drove him to madness.
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Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
[In the spring of 1846](https://www.britannica.com/topic/Donner-party), several families from Springfield, Illinois, set off to begin a new life in the west. The families of brothers George and Jacob Donner, plus local businessman James Reed, were all excited to make it out to California and [enjoy a fruitful and peaceful existence on the frontier](https://www.legendsofamerica.com/ca-donnerparty/). They set off in April, joined up with a larger wagon train in May and by July had reached Fort Laramie (in present-day Wyoming). It is here that the company divided, with the majority heading along the Oregon Trail, and the Donners, Reeds and a number of others choosing to take a shortcut; [the Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/donner-party). [Lansford Hastings](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansford_Hastings), in his book 'The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California', described how 'the most direct route, for the California emigrants, would be to leave the Oregon route, about two hundred miles east from Fort Hall; thence bearing West Southwest, to the Salt Lake; and thence continuing down to the bay of St. Francisco, by the route just described'. The ultimate goal was to flood California with immigrants in order to wrest control from Mexico and establish a new republic, and Hastings knew that providing a handy shortcut would help. The Donner party, numbering 87, set off down the pass, and made it to California safe and sound... damn, got my notes muddled up. [Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-should-know-about-the-donner-party) added an extra 125 miles to the journey, and would take the party through the most inhospitable parts of the Great Basin. Reed took the lead after Hastings departed, breaking a new trail and making their way through the Wasatch Mountains and eventually entering the Great Salt Lake Desert. A loss of oxen and wagons slowed progress, only reaching the Humboldt River (where the Cutoff joined back up with the Oregon Trail) by late September. With tensions running high, Reed stabbed another party member, banished to complete the journey on horseback. The rest of the party ascended the Sierra foothills, where Paiute warriors attacked and killed their remaining oxen. On 31 October, they reached what is now the Donner Pass across the Sierra Nevada, where they were met with deep snow. This might become problematic... As they hunkered down, the remaining oxen (their food supply) ran off, and things were getting a little dicey. The best record for that winter in 1846-47 is through the diary kept by Patrick Breen, who recorded the first death (Baylis Williams) on 15 December. The next day, a small party set off across the mountains, where 8 would die... and be eaten. By this time, relief parties were on their way to find the Donner Party, but not everyone could be saved. The last party member to be recovered was Lewis Keseberg on 21 April. Overall, 42 had died, and the [Donner Party](https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/donner-party-cannibalism-nation-west) would pass into legend as a reminder of the harrowing journey to the west. Remember kids; stick to the gosh darn path!
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Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
The [East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company), established in 1600, had extended its influence over the Indian subcontinent across two centuries, dominating trade and establishing its own rule over the population. Defeating the French during the [Seven Years' War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War) all but confirmed British domination in the region, allowing the EIC to wield power in the region. The nature of British superiority was enforced in the structure of the Indian Army, with the sepoys viewed as uncivilised and in need of some [good ol' Westernisation](https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Cascade/index.html?appid=7d662c53868942c98c4583109c5d521a). Through methods such as the '[Doctrine of lapse](https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/doctrine-of-lapse-meaning-objective-its-impact-1443009076-1)' (i.e. annexing land from Indian princes if they died heirless or abdicated), British power was cemented, allowing religious and economic reforms that undermined traditional Indian culture. This caused [feelings of distaste](https://www.teslashub.com/2019/01/revolt-of-1857-its-causes-and-effects.html) towards the British, especially when a [rumour](https://www.thoughtco.com/the-indian-revolt-of-1857-195476) surfaced that cartridges for the new Enfield rifles were covered in cow fat. Sepoys would have to bite the ends off these cartridges to load their rifles, and considering cows are sacred in both Islam and Hinduism, this might cause a bit of backlash. In [May 1857](http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/indian_rebellion_01.shtml), sepoys that were part of the Bengal Army garrisoned in Meerut killed their British officers and set off what has been called the '[Indian Mutiny](https://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny)', or the 'First War of Independence' in some circles ([the name](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857) is hotly debated among scholars). The rebels headed towards Delhi and took the city, which in turn inspired further risings across the region against the British. The Mughal emperor, [Bahadur Shah II](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahadur_Shah_Zafar), was declared Emperor of India after having had his power and prestige greatly diminished by the British, with the Mughal Empire now confined to Delhi. A large number of Indian princes, however, did not side with the rebellion, and unrest was focused in the northern regions rather than across the entire subcontinent. [The British were able to quickly rally](https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/the-sepoy-rebellion-and-the-threat-to-british-india/) after the shock of open rebellion, with campaigns in Lucknow and other regions finally bringing an end to the ordeal by November 1858. The punishments handed down by the British ([some rebels were fired out of cannon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blowing_from_a_gun), for example), but it proved to be a watershed moment in relations. The EIC was abolished, and the [British Raj](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Raj) was declared; the Crown was now in control. The subcontinent would not gain their independence until 1947, with the partition between India, East and West Pakistan causing [just a *few* problems](https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial)...
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Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
It's December 1941, and the Japanese have just launched an attack on Pearl Harbour. With the United States now drawn into this nasty global conflict business, citizens were ready to do their patriotic duty, even if they were chilling out in Havana drinking and fishing. [Ernest Hemingway](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway) would fight the war on his own terms; by patrolling the Caribbean Sea in the 'Pilar' and hunting down U-boats. [Hemingway had crossed the Atlantic](https://medium.com/practice-of-history-fall-2018/the-spanish-civil-war-through-the-eyes-of-ernest-hemingway-2de4faee03ca) to report on the [Spanish Civil War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War), proving to be a source of inspiration for his work '[For Whom the Bell Tolls](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls)', as well as his play '[The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_and_the_First_Forty-Nine_Stories)'. Reporting for the North American Newspaper Alliance, he produced 31 dispatches from Spain and crafted his '[iceberg theory](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory)' i.e. reveal details steadily so the readers have to keep reading. Speaking of taking things steady, that's exactly what Ernest did in the initial stages of American involvement in the war, but by the summer of 1942 Hemingway was ready to do his bit. [Ernest had a plan](https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/05/hemingway-goes-sub-chasing/); armed to the teeth with machine guns, bazookas and grenades from the government, Hemingway would patrol the Caribbean Sea and unleash hell upon any U-boats that dared to challenge the naval superiority of the 'Pilar'. He was fascinated by the [Q-ships](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-ship) and their tactics of deceiving U-boats during the First World War, with civilian ships disguised and armed to pounce. Hemingway was determined to prove that he was willing to contribute after his time in Europe (he had served as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross, in addition to his time in Spain), and his confidence was abundant. The 'Pilar' would be equipped with a specially made bomb atop its flying bridge, which would be tossed overboard once the U-boat had been riddled with gunfire. Yet sub-chasing proved to be a fruitless venture for Hemingway, despite one close encounter when a U-boat was spotted, the crew leaped to their stations... and the [U-boat left uninterested](https://sofrep.com/news/ernest-hemingway-u-boat-hunter/). The crew did manage to hurl off a few insults, before Ernest asked his son Gregory to fix him a gin and tonic (when not hunting down German U-boats, the crew drunk... a lot). Hemingway would soon abandon his ventures out at sea, and [would soon travel to Normandy](http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-arts-and-humanities/10.22492.ijah.6.1.06.pdf) to witness the D-Day landings and would see the liberation of Paris in August 1944 ([did he liberate the Ritz](https://www.thelocal.fr/20140822/when-hemingway-took-back-the-ritz-bar/)? Probably unlikely) and even the Battle of the Bulge, although illness meant he missed the majority of the fighting. Regardless, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery, going on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and was [under observation by the FBI](https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/01/hemingway-fbi/) due to his continued presence in Cuba. He would commit suicide in 1961, as paranoia invoked by the FBI drove him to madness.
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3
Posted by u/[deleted] 3 days
'But the Duce underestimated 'the German Mussolini' and even thought him a bit crazy. Hitler's *Mein Kampf* was brushed off as 'a boring tome that I have never been able to read' and his ideas as 'little more than commonplace clichés' *Quoted from Denis Mack Smith, 'Mussolini: A Biography;, p.172*
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
The [Taj Mahal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taj_Mahal), commissioned by [Shah Jahan](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shah_Jahan) as a mausoleum for his wife [Mumtaz Mahal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumtaz_Mahal), took 22 years to build and required the efforts of around [20,000 workers](https://www.wonders-of-the-world.net/Taj-Mahal/Workers-of-the-Taj-Mahal.php) to complete this project. A [popular myth](https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/travel/2018/06/india-discovering-taj-mahal) surrounds the mausoleum, as it is said that Shah Jahan, once the Taj Mahal was complete, proceeded to remove the hands of his masons and workers so that they could never work on such an elaborate architectural venture again. However, evidence suggests that it is just [a myth](https://www.tajmahal.org.uk/legends/mutilation.html). Archaeological finds suggest that no mass amputation took place, and there are no records of this order taking place. Indeed, Shah Jahan's reign ushered in the '[golden age](https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-tcc-worldciv2/chapter/mughal-empire-history/)' of Mughal architecture, with his time on the throne [seeing the construction](https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-times/busting-the-taj-fake-news/articleshow/61166015.cms) of the [Red Fort](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moti_Masjid_(Red_Fort)), the [Masjid-i Jehan Numa](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jama_Masjid,_Delhi) and the [Lahore Fort](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahore_Fort). A lack of workers and master builders would have made that a tad difficult.
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Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
During the Second World War, Messerschmitt were one of the big names in the aircraft industry. The [Bf 109](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109), [Bf 110](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_110) and the [Me 262](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Me_262) were just some of the aircraft supplied by the company, but when Germany was defeated in 1945 this whole building military aircraft business came to an end. So, what is a company to do with all this industrial capacity? Build microcars, of course! Engineer [Fritz Fend](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend), who had served in the Luftwaffe as a technical officer, had started designing three-wheeled cars in the wake of Germany's defeat, eventually building the '[Fend Flitzer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fend_Flitzer)' in 1948. After producing 250 vehicles, Fend brought the venture to an end in 1951, but decided to start a new project; the Fend 150. It was larger than the Flitzer, with a whole two seats! If only there was a company looking for new projects that could help with mass production... Fen approached [Willy Messerschmitt](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Messerschmitt), who happily accepted the proposal to start producing the Fend 150 and the Lastenroller (a three-wheeled moped). By 1953, Messerschmitt had unleashed the [KR175](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR175), with the [KR200](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200) entering the market in 1955. That's all well and good, but its durability had to be tested to ensure it was the best microcar out there. So, in [August 1955](https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/classics/messerschmitt-after-the-bubble-burst/article4259359/), a modified KR200 broke the 24-hour speed record for a three-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine that was under 250cc at the Hockenheimring, clocking in at a stonking 64 mph. That's the reason why we all rive three-wheeled vehi- wait... no, they stopped producing the KR200 in 1964 since cars with four wheels are better apparently. But hey, a record's a record!
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Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
'But the Duce underestimated 'the German Mussolini' and even thought him a bit crazy. Hitler's *Mein Kampf* was brushed off as 'a boring tome that I have never been able to read' and his ideas as 'little more than commonplace clichés' *Quoted from Denis Mack Smith, 'Mussolini: A Biography;, p.172*
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
In 1968, [China went mad for mangoes](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/57937/how-mao-accidentally-turned-mangoes-divine-objects-cultural-revolution). After Worker-Peasant Mao Zedong Thought Propaganda Teams had taken on a Red Guard faction occupying Tsinghua University, Mao gifted them a crate of mangoes he had receive from Pakistan's foreign minister Mian Arshad Hussain, which the peasantry saw a sign that [Mao favoured the working class](https://wiki.secretgeek.net/mango-fever) over the Red Guard. The Cultural Revolution had begun two years prior that Mao envisioned would counteract the capitalist influences tainting China, and Mao's regifting was a sign of Mao's benevolence and goodwill. In truth, Mao wasn't a fan of the messy mangoes. [The mango craze](https://asiahousearts.org/cult-mango-cultural-revolution/) swept across the country, with the mangoes split up between the peasants, leading to groups bathing them in formaldehyde, encasing them in wax, or sealing them in glass. When one began to rot, it was turned into a broth, which was probably consumed before a mango parade. Some, however, did not understand the fuss, and it would turn deadly. In a small Fulin village, the local dentist Dr Han commented how the mighty mango looked like a sweet potato. Alfreda Murck, in her book '[Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution](https://www.amazon.co.uk/Maos-Golden-Mangoes-Cultural-Revolution/dp/3858817325)', notes that: '[His frankness](https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/the-mao-mango-cult-of-1968/) was called blasphemy; he was arrested as a counterrevolutionary. He was soon tried and, to the dismay of the village, found guilty, paraded through the streets on the back of a truck as an example to the masses, taken to the edge of town, and executed with one shot to the head.' Rule number one; never... EVER... criticise the mango!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
It's December 1941, and the Japanese have just launched an attack on Pearl Harbour. With the United States now drawn into this nasty global conflict business, citizens were ready to do their patriotic duty, even if they were chilling out in Havana drinking and fishing. [Ernest Hemingway](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway) would fight the war on his own terms; by patrolling the Caribbean Sea in the 'Pilar' and hunting down U-boats. [Hemingway had crossed the Atlantic](https://medium.com/practice-of-history-fall-2018/the-spanish-civil-war-through-the-eyes-of-ernest-hemingway-2de4faee03ca) to report on the [Spanish Civil War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War), proving to be a source of inspiration for his work '[For Whom the Bell Tolls](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls)', as well as his play '[The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_and_the_First_Forty-Nine_Stories)'. Reporting for the North American Newspaper Alliance, he produced 31 dispatches from Spain and crafted his '[iceberg theory](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory)' i.e. reveal details steadily so the readers have to keep reading. Speaking of taking things steady, that's exactly what Ernest did in the initial stages of American involvement in the war, but by the summer of 1942 Hemingway was ready to do his bit. [Ernest had a plan](https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/05/hemingway-goes-sub-chasing/); armed to the teeth with machine guns, bazookas and grenades from the government, Hemingway would patrol the Caribbean Sea and unleash hell upon any U-boats that dared to challenge the naval superiority of the 'Pilar'. He was fascinated by the [Q-ships](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-ship) and their tactics of deceiving U-boats during the First World War, with civilian ships disguised and armed to pounce. Hemingway was determined to prove that he was willing to contribute after his time in Europe (he had served as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross, in addition to his time in Spain), and his confidence was abundant. The 'Pilar' would be equipped with a specially made bomb atop its flying bridge, which would be tossed overboard once the U-boat had been riddled with gunfire. Yet sub-chasing proved to be a fruitless venture for Hemingway, despite one close encounter when a U-boat was spotted, the crew leaped to their stations... and the [U-boat left uninterested](https://sofrep.com/news/ernest-hemingway-u-boat-hunter/). The crew did manage to hurl off a few insults, before Ernest asked his son Gregory to fix him a gin and tonic (when not hunting down German U-boats, the crew drunk... a lot). Hemingway would soon abandon his ventures out at sea, and [would soon travel to Normandy](http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-arts-and-humanities/10.22492.ijah.6.1.06.pdf) to witness the D-Day landings and would see the liberation of Paris in August 1944 ([did he liberate the Ritz](https://www.thelocal.fr/20140822/when-hemingway-took-back-the-ritz-bar/)? Probably unlikely) and even the Battle of the Bulge, although illness meant he missed the majority of the fighting. Regardless, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery, going on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and was [under observation by the FBI](https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/01/hemingway-fbi/) due to his continued presence in Cuba. He would commit suicide in 1961, as paranoia invoked by the FBI drove him to madness.
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26
Posted by u/johnlen1n 4 days
In February 1741, the Dutch occupied the Travancore city of Colachel in response to the rising power of the [Kingdom of Travancore](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travancore) and the expansionism of [Marthanda Varma](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marthanda_Varma) in the 1730s. [Dutch monopoly](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company) on spices was perceived to be under threat, especially after Varma and his vassals refused to honour the monopoly contracts the Dutch had signed with these states before Varma took them. With Dutch Malabar basing its economy on the spice trade, action had to be taken. In late 1739, after failed peace negotiations, the Dutch declared war, with Travancore immediately on the backfoot as soldiers arrived from Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka), and by November 1740 Dutch ships were bombarding Colachel and blockading the coast. Taking Colachel would provide a base for an attack on Padmanabhapuram, the capital of Travancore, and bring the conflict to an end. Reinforcements, however, would not be arriving due to the ongoing [Java War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_War); Varma saw his chance to strike. [With a large force in tow](https://www.livehistoryindia.com/snapshort-histories/2018/07/06/marthanda-varma-and-the-battle-of-colachel), he marched on [Colachel](https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Colachel) to relieve the city. A blockade by land and sea was conducted by Varma's forces, with the overall intention being to [starve the Dutch](https://medium.com/history-in-bytes/how-the-dutch-fell-for-a-single-cannon-ball-battle-of-colachel-b42f3e75131f) into surrender. The Dutch were heavily outnumbered, and Varma was determined to take back Colachel. The city was bombarded at the start of August 1741, [and it was one shot](https://www.drivetokerala.com/2020/05/battle-of-colachel-travancore-dutch-war.html) that firmly turned the tide in Varma's favour. A cannonball fell into a barrel of gunpowder, with the resultant fire destroying the remaining rice supplies of the Dutch garrison. On 10 August 1741, the Dutch surrendered, and received a heavy blow to both their prestige and their ambitions to expand Dutch holdings in the Indian subcontinent. Ultimately, the Dutch East India Company would become defunct in 1799 as they failed to keep up with the [East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company), who would go on to dominate the region until its own abolition in 1858.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
During the Second World War, Messerschmitt were one of the big names in the aircraft industry. The [Bf 109](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109), [Bf 110](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_110) and the [Me 262](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Me_262) were just some of the aircraft supplied by the company, but when Germany was defeated in 1945 this whole building military aircraft business came to an end. So, what is a company to do with all this industrial capacity? Build microcars, of course! Engineer [Fritz Fend](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend), who had served in the Luftwaffe as a technical officer, had started designing three-wheeled cars in the wake of Germany's defeat, eventually building the '[Fend Flitzer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fend_Flitzer)' in 1948. After producing 250 vehicles, Fend brought the venture to an end in 1951, but decided to start a new project; the Fend 150. It was larger than the Flitzer, with a whole two seats! If only there was a company looking for new projects that could help with mass production... Fen approached [Willy Messerschmitt](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Messerschmitt), who happily accepted the proposal to start producing the Fend 150 and the Lastenroller (a three-wheeled moped). By 1953, Messerschmitt had unleashed the [KR175](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR175), with the [KR200](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200) entering the market in 1955. That's all well and good, but its durability had to be tested to ensure it was the best microcar out there. So, in [August 1955](https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/classics/messerschmitt-after-the-bubble-burst/article4259359/), a modified KR200 broke the 24-hour speed record for a three-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine that was under 250cc at the Hockenheimring, clocking in at a stonking 64 mph. That's the reason why we all rive three-wheeled vehi- wait... no, they stopped producing the KR200 in 1964 since cars with four wheels are better apparently. But hey, a record's a record!
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95
Posted by u/johnlen1n 4 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a pigeon attack orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla) ([he did love his pigeons](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T), although it's unlikely this was due to Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
The [East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company), established in 1600, had extended its influence over the Indian subcontinent across two centuries, dominating trade and establishing its own rule over the population. Defeating the French during the [Seven Years' War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War) all but confirmed British domination in the region, allowing the EIC to wield power in the region. The nature of British superiority was enforced in the structure of the Indian Army, with the sepoys viewed as uncivilised and in need of some [good ol' Westernisation](https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Cascade/index.html?appid=7d662c53868942c98c4583109c5d521a). Through methods such as the '[Doctrine of lapse](https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/doctrine-of-lapse-meaning-objective-its-impact-1443009076-1)' (i.e. annexing land from Indian princes if they died heirless or abdicated), British power was cemented, allowing religious and economic reforms that undermined traditional Indian culture. This caused [feelings of distaste](https://www.teslashub.com/2019/01/revolt-of-1857-its-causes-and-effects.html) towards the British, especially when a [rumour](https://www.thoughtco.com/the-indian-revolt-of-1857-195476) surfaced that cartridges for the new Enfield rifles were covered in cow fat. Sepoys would have to bite the ends off these cartridges to load their rifles, and considering cows are sacred in both Islam and Hinduism, this might cause a bit of backlash. In [May 1857](http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/indian_rebellion_01.shtml), sepoys that were part of the Bengal Army garrisoned in Meerut killed their British officers and set off what has been called the '[Indian Mutiny](https://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny)', or the 'First War of Independence' in some circles ([the name](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857) is hotly debated among scholars). The rebels headed towards Delhi and took the city, which in turn inspired further risings across the region against the British. The Mughal emperor, [Bahadur Shah II](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahadur_Shah_Zafar), was declared Emperor of India after having had his power and prestige greatly diminished by the British, with the Mughal Empire now confined to Delhi. A large number of Indian princes, however, did not side with the rebellion, and unrest was focused in the northern regions rather than across the entire subcontinent. [The British were able to quickly rally](https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/the-sepoy-rebellion-and-the-threat-to-british-india/) after the shock of open rebellion, with campaigns in Lucknow and other regions finally bringing an end to the ordeal by November 1858. The punishments handed down by the British ([some rebels were fired out of cannon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blowing_from_a_gun), for example), but it proved to be a watershed moment in relations. The EIC was abolished, and the [British Raj](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Raj) was declared; the Crown was now in control. The subcontinent would not gain their independence until 1947, with the partition between India, East and West Pakistan causing [just a *few* problems](https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial)...
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17
Posted by u/johnlen1n 4 days
In [October 1992](https://www.nytimes.com/1992/10/31/world/after-350-years-vatican-says-galileo-was-right-it-moves.html), the Catholic Church brought an end to a 13-year investigation into the Church's condemnation of [Galileo Galilei](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei) in 1633, declaring that he was right about this whole Earth revolving around the sun thing. His support for [Nicolaus Copernicus](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus) and his theory on [heliocentrism](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copernican_heliocentrism) landed Galileo in a spot of bother; his '[Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialogue_Concerning_the_Two_Chief_World_Systems)' had one character, Simplicio, defend the [traditional views](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geocentric_model) of Ptolemy and Aristotle, which Pope Urban VIII thought was a direct insult to his own beliefs). Galileo ended up under house arrest until his death in 1642, and it would not be until 1979 that Pope John Paul II would investigate Galileo's sentence. [By 1992](https://bertie.ccsu.edu/naturesci/cosmology/galileopope.html), the investigation had come to an end, concluding that the Copernican model was correct.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a [pigeon attack](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T) orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
The [East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company), established in 1600, had extended its influence over the Indian subcontinent across two centuries, dominating trade and establishing its own rule over the population. Defeating the French during the [Seven Years' War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War) all but confirmed British domination in the region, allowing the EIC to wield power in the region. The nature of British superiority was enforced in the structure of the Indian Army, with the sepoys viewed as uncivilised and in need of some [good ol' Westernisation](https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Cascade/index.html?appid=7d662c53868942c98c4583109c5d521a). Through methods such as the '[Doctrine of lapse](https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/doctrine-of-lapse-meaning-objective-its-impact-1443009076-1)' (i.e. annexing land from Indian princes if they died heirless or abdicated), British power was cemented, allowing religious and economic reforms that undermined traditional Indian culture. This caused [feelings of distaste](https://www.teslashub.com/2019/01/revolt-of-1857-its-causes-and-effects.html) towards the British, especially when a [rumour](https://www.thoughtco.com/the-indian-revolt-of-1857-195476) surfaced that cartridges for the new Enfield rifles were covered in cow fat. Sepoys would have to bite the ends off these cartridges to load their rifles, and considering cows are sacred in both Islam and Hinduism, this might cause a bit of backlash. In [May 1857](http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/indian_rebellion_01.shtml), sepoys that were part of the Bengal Army garrisoned in Meerut killed their British officers and set off what has been called the '[Indian Mutiny](https://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny)', or the 'First War of Independence' in some circles ([the name](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857) is hotly debated among scholars). The rebels headed towards Delhi and took the city, which in turn inspired further risings across the region against the British. The Mughal emperor, [Bahadur Shah II](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahadur_Shah_Zafar), was declared Emperor of India after having had his power and prestige greatly diminished by the British, with the Mughal Empire now confined to Delhi. A large number of Indian princes, however, did not side with the rebellion, and unrest was focused in the northern regions rather than across the entire subcontinent. [The British were able to quickly rally](https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/the-sepoy-rebellion-and-the-threat-to-british-india/) after the shock of open rebellion, with campaigns in Lucknow and other regions finally bringing an end to the ordeal by November 1858. The punishments handed down by the British ([some rebels were fired out of cannon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blowing_from_a_gun), for example), but it proved to be a watershed moment in relations. The EIC was abolished, and the [British Raj](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Raj) was declared; the Crown was now in control. The subcontinent would not gain their independence until 1947, with the partition between India, East and West Pakistan causing [just a *few* problems](https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial)...
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
It's December 1941, and the Japanese have just launched an attack on Pearl Harbour. With the United States now drawn into this nasty global conflict business, citizens were ready to do their patriotic duty, even if they were chilling out in Havana drinking and fishing. [Ernest Hemingway](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway) would fight the war on his own terms; by patrolling the Caribbean Sea in the 'Pilar' and hunting down U-boats. [Hemingway had crossed the Atlantic](https://medium.com/practice-of-history-fall-2018/the-spanish-civil-war-through-the-eyes-of-ernest-hemingway-2de4faee03ca) to report on the [Spanish Civil War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War), proving to be a source of inspiration for his work '[For Whom the Bell Tolls](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls)', as well as his play '[The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Column_and_the_First_Forty-Nine_Stories)'. Reporting for the North American Newspaper Alliance, he produced 31 dispatches from Spain and crafted his '[iceberg theory](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_theory)' i.e. reveal details steadily so the readers have to keep reading. Speaking of taking things steady, that's exactly what Ernest did in the initial stages of American involvement in the war, but by the summer of 1942 Hemingway was ready to do his bit. [Ernest had a plan](https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/2016/07/05/hemingway-goes-sub-chasing/); armed to the teeth with machine guns, bazookas and grenades from the government, Hemingway would patrol the Caribbean Sea and unleash hell upon any U-boats that dared to challenge the naval superiority of the 'Pilar'. He was fascinated by the [Q-ships](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-ship) and their tactics of deceiving U-boats during the First World War, with civilian ships disguised and armed to pounce. Hemingway was determined to prove that he was willing to contribute after his time in Europe (he had served as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross, in addition to his time in Spain), and his confidence was abundant. The 'Pilar' would be equipped with a specially made bomb atop its flying bridge, which would be tossed overboard once the U-boat had been riddled with gunfire. Yet sub-chasing proved to be a fruitless venture for Hemingway, despite one close encounter when a U-boat was spotted, the crew leaped to their stations... and the [U-boat left uninterested](https://sofrep.com/news/ernest-hemingway-u-boat-hunter/). The crew did manage to hurl off a few insults, before Ernest asked his son Gregory to fix him a gin and tonic (when not hunting down German U-boats, the crew drunk... a lot). Hemingway would soon abandon his ventures out at sea, and [would soon travel to Normandy](http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-arts-and-humanities/10.22492.ijah.6.1.06.pdf) to witness the D-Day landings and would see the liberation of Paris in August 1944 ([did he liberate the Ritz](https://www.thelocal.fr/20140822/when-hemingway-took-back-the-ritz-bar/)? Probably unlikely) and even the Battle of the Bulge, although illness meant he missed the majority of the fighting. Regardless, Hemingway was awarded a Bronze Star for his bravery, going on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and was [under observation by the FBI](https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/08/01/hemingway-fbi/) due to his continued presence in Cuba. He would commit suicide in 1961, as paranoia invoked by the FBI drove him to madness.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
In 1968, [China went mad for mangoes](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/57937/how-mao-accidentally-turned-mangoes-divine-objects-cultural-revolution). After Worker-Peasant Mao Zedong Thought Propaganda Teams had taken on a Red Guard faction occupying Tsinghua University, Mao gifted them a crate of mangoes he had receive from Pakistan's foreign minister Mian Arshad Hussain, which the peasantry saw a sign that [Mao favoured the working class](https://wiki.secretgeek.net/mango-fever) over the Red Guard. The Cultural Revolution had begun two years prior that Mao envisioned would counteract the capitalist influences tainting China, and Mao's regifting was a sign of Mao's benevolence and goodwill. In truth, Mao wasn't a fan of the messy mangoes. [The mango craze](https://asiahousearts.org/cult-mango-cultural-revolution/) swept across the country, with the mangoes split up between the peasants, leading to groups bathing them in formaldehyde, encasing them in wax, or sealing them in glass. When one began to rot, it was turned into a broth, which was probably consumed before a mango parade. Some, however, did not understand the fuss, and it would turn deadly. In a small Fulin village, the local dentist Dr Han commented how the mighty mango looked like a sweet potato. Alfreda Murck, in her book '[Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution](https://www.amazon.co.uk/Maos-Golden-Mangoes-Cultural-Revolution/dp/3858817325)', notes that: '[His frankness](https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/the-mao-mango-cult-of-1968/) was called blasphemy; he was arrested as a counterrevolutionary. He was soon tried and, to the dismay of the village, found guilty, paraded through the streets on the back of a truck as an example to the masses, taken to the edge of town, and executed with one shot to the head.' Rule number one; never... EVER... criticise the mango!
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 4 days
The [East India Company](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company), established in 1600, had extended its influence over the Indian subcontinent across two centuries, dominating trade and establishing its own rule over the population. Defeating the French during the [Seven Years' War](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War) all but confirmed British domination in the region, allowing the EIC to wield power in the region. The nature of British superiority was enforced in the structure of the Indian Army, with the sepoys viewed as uncivilised and in need of some [good ol' Westernisation](https://www.arcgis.com/apps/Cascade/index.html?appid=7d662c53868942c98c4583109c5d521a). Through methods such as the '[Doctrine of lapse](https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/doctrine-of-lapse-meaning-objective-its-impact-1443009076-1)' (i.e. annexing land from Indian princes if they died heirless or abdicated), British power was cemented, allowing religious and economic reforms that undermined traditional Indian culture. This caused [feelings of distaste](https://www.teslashub.com/2019/01/revolt-of-1857-its-causes-and-effects.html) towards the British, especially when a [rumour](https://www.thoughtco.com/the-indian-revolt-of-1857-195476) surfaced that cartridges for the new Enfield rifles were covered in cow fat. Sepoys would have to bite the ends off these cartridges to load their rifles, and considering cows are sacred in both Islam and Hinduism, this might cause a bit of backlash. In [May 1857](http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/indian_rebellion_01.shtml), sepoys that were part of the Bengal Army garrisoned in Meerut killed their British officers and set off what has been called the '[Indian Mutiny](https://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny)', or the 'First War of Independence' in some circles ([the name](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_Indian_Rebellion_of_1857) is hotly debated among scholars). The rebels headed towards Delhi and took the city, which in turn inspired further risings across the region against the British. The Mughal emperor, [Bahadur Shah II](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahadur_Shah_Zafar), was declared Emperor of India after having had his power and prestige greatly diminished by the British, with the Mughal Empire now confined to Delhi. A large number of Indian princes, however, did not side with the rebellion, and unrest was focused in the northern regions rather than across the entire subcontinent. [The British were able to quickly rally](https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/the-sepoy-rebellion-and-the-threat-to-british-india/) after the shock of open rebellion, with campaigns in Lucknow and other regions finally bringing an end to the ordeal by November 1858. The punishments handed down by the British ([some rebels were fired out of cannon](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blowing_from_a_gun), for example), but it proved to be a watershed moment in relations. The EIC was abolished, and the [British Raj](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Raj) was declared; the Crown was now in control. The subcontinent would not gain their independence until 1947, with the partition between India, East and West Pakistan causing [just a *few* problems](https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/05/partition-70-years-on-india-pakistan-denial)...
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134
Posted by u/johnlen1n 5 days
Having defeated the British and helping to secure the independence of the United States, George Washington retired to [Mount Vernon](https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/royal-gift-donkey/) to spend the rest of his days on his plantation. Washington was determined to contribute to the nation's economy and ensure his own financial security, so hatched a plan; [he would breed mules](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/george-washington-saw-future-america-mules-180974182/). At that moment in time, American mules were of low quality, so Washington concluded that importing superior jacks (male donkeys) would improve the mule stock. [Mules](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-03-02-0201) required less food and superior aptitudes compared to other animals, meaning that George would not rest until he got his ass. Spain was the home of the world's best donkeys, yet it was illegal for them to be exported without royal approval. George had tried to [purchase one during the revolution](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-02-02-0001), yet his contact, Spanish agent Juan de Miralles, had died, and he continued his inquiries throughout the rest of the war. Washington eventually made contact with a private company, who then solicited help from [William Carmicheal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Carmichael_(diplomat)) (Chargé d'Affaires to the Spanish court*)* to relay a message to the Spanish Secretary of State. Charles III was more than happy to gift Washington two prized jacks; Washington had done it, and had even strengthened relations between the USA and Spain. Now that's diplomacy. One jack, sadly, passed away during the crossing, yet the other made it to Gloucester, MA, in September 1785, reaching Mount Vernon in December. 'Royal Gift' had arrived, and [Washington spread the word](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-04-02-0139) about the mighty jack, yet the first mating season proved fruitless, as neighbouring plantation owners were unsure about how mules mate with mares (female horses). Apart from that first season, Royal Gift appeared in the adverts of Virginia and Maryland newspapers, and there was considerable interest in what Washington was doing up in Mount Vernon. Even after becoming president in 1789, Washington kept up to date about the health of Royal Gift, even going so far as to [purchase mares](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-04-02-0074) to help with the breeding programme. The jack was [sent down](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0155) to South Carolina as long as Washington got a share of the profits in 1791, and in September travelled to Sandy Hill. Sadly, Royal Gift was afflicted by a hoof-related injury, carrying out two mating seasons on a plantation north of Charleston before dying in 1796. But Washington's venture had proved to be successful, with Mount Vernon boasting a herd of nearly 60 mules by the end of the 18th century. 'Father of the Nation' is one thing, but 'Father of the American Mule'? That tops it, right?
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
If you walk by the National Gallery, situated next to Trafalgar Square, you may spot an unlikely guest (no, it's not the [Hahn/Cock](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hahn/Cock) statue, or that one silver-coated living statue that scared the shit out of me when I was 14). Believe it or not, it's [George Washington](https://www.londonremembers.com/memorials/george-washington). But wait; what's Washington doing situated next to the monument of one of [Britain's finest naval victories](https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Trafalgar-European-history)? In 1921, the United States gifted their Atlantic neighbours a statue of their first president ([Peru](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington_Lima_002.JPG) got one too, by the way), as a sign of goodwill and all that. [The interesting thing](https://www.military.com/history/george-washington-statue-london-british-soil.html) is that the statue's foundations is laid on Virginian soil, as Washington swore that he would never set foot on British soil ever again. Seems fair; Washington allegedly could never tell a lie. Next time you're in London, make sure you go and find the other [5 presidents](https://www.guidelondon.org.uk/blog/around-london/statues-6-american-presidents-london/) in the city. What a fun family activity!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
In 1968, [China went mad for mangoes](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/57937/how-mao-accidentally-turned-mangoes-divine-objects-cultural-revolution). After Worker-Peasant Mao Zedong Thought Propaganda Teams had taken on a Red Guard faction occupying Tsinghua University, Mao gifted them a crate of mangoes he had receive from Pakistan's foreign minister Mian Arshad Hussain, which the peasantry saw a sign that [Mao favoured the working class](https://wiki.secretgeek.net/mango-fever) over the Red Guard. The Cultural Revolution had begun two years prior that Mao envisioned would counteract the capitalist influences tainting China, and Mao's regifting was a sign of Mao's benevolence and goodwill. In truth, Mao wasn't a fan of the messy mangoes. [The mango craze](https://asiahousearts.org/cult-mango-cultural-revolution/) swept across the country, with the mangoes split up between the peasants, leading to groups bathing them in formaldehyde, encasing them in wax, or sealing them in glass. When one began to rot, it was turned into a broth, which was probably consumed before a mango parade. Some, however, did not understand the fuss, and it would turn deadly. In a small Fulin village, the local dentist Dr Han commented how the mighty mango looked like a sweet potato. Alfreda Murck, in her book '[Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution](https://www.amazon.co.uk/Maos-Golden-Mangoes-Cultural-Revolution/dp/3858817325)', notes that: '[His frankness](https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/the-mao-mango-cult-of-1968/) was called blasphemy; he was arrested as a counterrevolutionary. He was soon tried and, to the dismay of the village, found guilty, paraded through the streets on the back of a truck as an example to the masses, taken to the edge of town, and executed with one shot to the head.' Rule number one; never... EVER... criticise the mango!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
Having defeated the British and helping to secure the independence of the United States, George Washington retired to [Mount Vernon](https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/royal-gift-donkey/) to spend the rest of his days on his plantation. Washington was determined to contribute to the nation's economy and ensure his own financial security, so hatched a plan; [he would breed mules](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/george-washington-saw-future-america-mules-180974182/). At that moment in time, American mules were of low quality, so Washington concluded that importing superior jacks (male donkeys) would improve the mule stock. [Mules](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-03-02-0201) required less food and superior aptitudes compared to other animals, meaning that George would not rest until he got his ass. Spain was the home of the world's best donkeys, yet it was illegal for them to be exported without royal approval. George had tried to [purchase one during the revolution](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-02-02-0001), yet his contact, Spanish agent Juan de Miralles, had died, and he continued his inquiries throughout the rest of the war. Washington eventually made contact with a private company, who then solicited help from [William Carmicheal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Carmichael_(diplomat)) (Chargé d'Affaires to the Spanish court*)* to relay a message to the Spanish Secretary of State. Charles III was more than happy to gift Washington two prized jacks; Washington had done it, and had even strengthened relations between the USA and Spain. Now that's diplomacy. One jack, sadly, passed away during the crossing, yet the other made it to Gloucester, MA, in September 1785, reaching Mount Vernon in December. 'Royal Gift' had arrived, and [Washington spread the word](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-04-02-0139) about the mighty jack, yet the first mating season proved fruitless, as neighbouring plantation owners were unsure about how mules mate with mares (female horses). Apart from that first season, Royal Gift appeared in the adverts of Virginia and Maryland newspapers, and there was considerable interest in what Washington was doing up in Mount Vernon. Even after becoming president in 1789, Washington kept up to date about the health of Royal Gift, even going so far as to [purchase mares](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-04-02-0074) to help with the breeding programme. The jack was [sent down](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0155) to South Carolina as long as Washington got a share of the profits in 1791, and in September travelled to Sandy Hill. Sadly, Royal Gift was afflicted by a hoof-related injury, carrying out two mating seasons on a plantation north of Charleston before dying in 1796. But Washington's venture had proved to be successful, with Mount Vernon boasting a herd of nearly 60 mules by the end of the 18th century. 'Father of the Nation' is one thing, but 'Father of the American Mule'? That tops it, right?
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
In 1968, [China went mad for mangoes](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/57937/how-mao-accidentally-turned-mangoes-divine-objects-cultural-revolution). After Worker-Peasant Mao Zedong Thought Propaganda Teams had taken on a Red Guard faction occupying Tsinghua University, Mao gifted them a crate of mangoes he had receive from Pakistan's foreign minister Mian Arshad Hussain, which the peasantry saw a sign that [Mao favoured the working class](https://wiki.secretgeek.net/mango-fever) over the Red Guard. The Cultural Revolution had begun two years prior that Mao envisioned would counteract the capitalist influences tainting China, and Mao's regifting was a sign of Mao's benevolence and goodwill. In truth, Mao wasn't a fan of the messy mangoes. [The mango craze](https://asiahousearts.org/cult-mango-cultural-revolution/) swept across the country, with the mangoes split up between the peasants, leading to groups bathing them in formaldehyde, encasing them in wax, or sealing them in glass. When one began to rot, it was turned into a broth, which was probably consumed before a mango parade. Some, however, did not understand the fuss, and it would turn deadly. In a small Fulin village, the local dentist Dr Han commented how the mighty mango looked like a sweet potato. Alfreda Murck, in her book '[Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution](https://www.amazon.co.uk/Maos-Golden-Mangoes-Cultural-Revolution/dp/3858817325)', notes that: '[His frankness](https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/the-mao-mango-cult-of-1968/) was called blasphemy; he was arrested as a counterrevolutionary. He was soon tried and, to the dismay of the village, found guilty, paraded through the streets on the back of a truck as an example to the masses, taken to the edge of town, and executed with one shot to the head.' Rule number one; never... EVER... criticise the mango!
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
If you walk by the National Gallery, situated next to Trafalgar Square, you may spot an unlikely guest (no, it's not the [Hahn/Cock](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hahn/Cock) statue, or that one silver-coated living statue that scared the shit out of me when I was 14). Believe it or not, it's [George Washington](https://www.londonremembers.com/memorials/george-washington). But wait; what's Washington doing situated next to the monument of one of [Britain's finest naval victories](https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Trafalgar-European-history)? In 1921, the United States gifted their Atlantic neighbours a statue of their first president ([Peru](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington_Lima_002.JPG) got one too, by the way), as a sign of goodwill and all that. [The interesting thing](https://www.military.com/history/george-washington-statue-london-british-soil.html) is that the statue's foundations is laid on Virginian soil, as Washington swore that he would never set foot on British soil ever again. Seems fair; Washington allegedly could never tell a lie. Next time you're in London, make sure you go and find the other [5 presidents](https://www.guidelondon.org.uk/blog/around-london/statues-6-american-presidents-london/) in the city. What a fun family activity!
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11
Posted by u/johnlen1n 5 days
In April 1633, [Galileo Galilei](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Galileo-Galilei) begins his [trial of heresy](https://famous-trials.com/galileotrial/1014-home) at the hands of inquisitor [Father Vincenzo Maculani da Firenzuola](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincenzo_Maculani) for his beliefs in how the Earth revolves around the sun. Galileo had already been in trouble over this whole ordeal in 1616, where he was forbidden to continue holing onto this belief, and defended himself by saying that he was simply promoting discussion by publishing works on the subject. He had published his 'Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems', in which three characters (Salviati, Sagredo and Simplicio) discuss astronomy. Unfortunately, [Pope Urban VIII](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Urban_VIII) thought that Simplicio's dedicated following of Ptolemy and Aristotle was a jibe at his own beliefs and criticisms of Copernican heliocentrism (i.e. Earth goes round the sun), so called Galileo to the stand. By June, [the verdict was in](http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/condemnation.html); Galileo was 'vehemently suspect of heresy', and he must 'abjure, curse and detest' these opinions. [He was sentenced to house arrest](https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/galileo-is-accused-of-heresy) for the remainder of his life (he would die in 1642), and 'Dialogue' was placed on the 'Index of Forbidden Books', where it would stay until 1835. Galileo's other works were taken off the list after his death, and it would not be until 31 October 1992 that Pope John Paul II was in the wrong for condemning Galileo; '[John Paul](http://john%20paul%20said%20the%20theologians%20who%20condemned%20galileo%20did%20not%20recognize%20the%20formal%20distinction%20between%20the%20bible%20and%20its%20interpretation/) said the theologians who condemned Galileo did not recognize the formal distinction between the Bible and its interpretation'. So, all good in the end, I guess! Apart from the whole house arrest thing. I mean, we've all been in lockdown for a year and quite frankly it's getting rather tiresome, so imagine 9 years.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
[In the spring of 1846](https://www.britannica.com/topic/Donner-party), several families from Springfield, Illinois, set off to begin a new life in the west. The families of brothers George and Jacob Donner, plus local businessman James Reed, were all excited to make it out to California and [enjoy a fruitful and peaceful existence on the frontier](https://www.legendsofamerica.com/ca-donnerparty/). They set off in April, joined up with a larger wagon train in May and by July had reached Fort Laramie (in present-day Wyoming). It is here that the company divided, with the majority heading along the Oregon Trail, and the Donners, Reeds and a number of others choosing to take a shortcut; [the Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/donner-party). [Lansford Hastings](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansford_Hastings), in his book 'The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California', described how 'the most direct route, for the California emigrants, would be to leave the Oregon route, about two hundred miles east from Fort Hall; thence bearing West Southwest, to the Salt Lake; and thence continuing down to the bay of St. Francisco, by the route just described'. The ultimate goal was to flood California with immigrants in order to wrest control from Mexico and establish a new republic, and Hastings knew that providing a handy shortcut would help. The Donner party, numbering 87, set off down the pass, and made it to California safe and sound... damn, got my notes muddled up. [Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-should-know-about-the-donner-party) added an extra 125 miles to the journey, and would take the party through the most inhospitable parts of the Great Basin. Reed took the lead after Hastings departed, breaking a new trail and making their way through the Wasatch Mountains and eventually entering the Great Salt Lake Desert. A loss of oxen and wagons slowed progress, only reaching the Humboldt River (where the Cutoff joined back up with the Oregon Trail) by late September. With tensions running high, Reed stabbed another party member, banished to complete the journey on horseback. The rest of the party ascended the Sierra foothills, where Paiute warriors attacked and killed their remaining oxen. On 31 October, they reached what is now the Donner Pass across the Sierra Nevada, where they were met with deep snow. This might become problematic... As they hunkered down, the remaining oxen (their food supply) ran off, and things were getting a little dicey. The best record for that winter in 1846-47 is through the diary kept by Patrick Breen, who recorded the first death (Baylis Williams) on 15 December. The next day, a small party set off across the mountains, where 8 would die... and be eaten. By this time, relief parties were on their way to find the Donner Party, but not everyone could be saved. The last party member to be recovered was Lewis Keseberg on 21 April. Overall, 42 had died, and the [Donner Party](https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/donner-party-cannibalism-nation-west) would pass into legend as a reminder of the harrowing journey to the west. Remember kids; stick to the gosh darn path!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 5 days
During the Second World War, Messerschmitt were one of the big names in the aircraft industry. The [Bf 109](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109), [Bf 110](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_110) and the [Me 262](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Me_262) were just some of the aircraft supplied by the company, but when Germany was defeated in 1945 this whole building military aircraft business came to an end. So, what is a company to do with all this industrial capacity? Build microcars, of course! Engineer [Fritz Fend](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend), who had served in the Luftwaffe as a technical officer, had started designing three-wheeled cars in the wake of Germany's defeat, eventually building the '[Fend Flitzer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fend_Flitzer)' in 1948. After producing 250 vehicles, Fend brought the venture to an end in 1951, but decided to start a new project; the Fend 150. It was larger than the Flitzer, with a whole two seats! If only there was a company looking for new projects that could help with mass production... Fen approached [Willy Messerschmitt](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Messerschmitt), who happily accepted the proposal to start producing the Fend 150 and the Lastenroller (a three-wheeled moped). By 1953, Messerschmitt had unleashed the [KR175](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR175), with the [KR200](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200) entering the market in 1955. That's all well and good, but its durability had to be tested to ensure it was the best microcar out there. So, in [August 1955](https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/classics/messerschmitt-after-the-bubble-burst/article4259359/), a modified KR200 broke the 24-hour speed record for a three-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine that was under 250cc at the Hockenheimring, clocking in at a stonking 64 mph. That's the reason why we all rive three-wheeled vehi- wait... no, they stopped producing the KR200 in 1964 since cars with four wheels are better apparently. But hey, a record's a record!
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9
Posted by u/johnlen1n 5 days
George Lucas was an up and coming director, having delivered the hit film 'American Graffiti' in 1973. When his latest venture about some sort of conflict in space was [in development](https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/43-years-ago-star-wars-creator-george-lucas-made-a-4-billion-decision-even-though-it-had-nothing-to-do-with-money.html), 20th Century Fox weren't really sold on the idea. [They were sure](https://www.businessinsider.com/how-star-wars-made-george-lucas-a-billionaire-2015-12?r=US&IR=T) that the film would not reach the hype of Lucas' previous work, so when George suggested he would take a [$350,000 pay cut](https://www.celebritynetworth.com/articles/entertainment-articles/how-one-genius-decision-made-george-lucas-a-billionaire/) from the proposed $500,000 just to claim the merchandising and sequel rights, Fox were more than happy to sign the deal. [Between 1977-1978](https://www.pymnts.com/news/retail/2019/star-wars-disney-movie-merchandise-revenue/), 'Star Wars' raked in $100 million just in toy sales, earning another $3 billion in revenue over the next 35 years. Then there are the video games, book sales, videos, DVDs and all those licensing deals... wait, and the sequels... and the prequels... and those tie in films... and the next set of sequels... woops. By the time Disney bought the rights, Lucas was worth $5.5 billion; all from taking a pay cut!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
Having defeated the British and helping to secure the independence of the United States, George Washington retired to [Mount Vernon](https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/royal-gift-donkey/) to spend the rest of his days on his plantation. Washington was determined to contribute to the nation's economy and ensure his own financial security, so hatched a plan; [he would breed mules](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/george-washington-saw-future-america-mules-180974182/). At that moment in time, American mules were of low quality, so Washington concluded that importing superior jacks (male donkeys) would improve the mule stock. [Mules](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-03-02-0201) required less food and superior aptitudes compared to other animals, meaning that George would not rest until he got his ass. Spain was the home of the world's best donkeys, yet it was illegal for them to be exported without royal approval. George had tried to [purchase one during the revolution](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-02-02-0001), yet his contact, Spanish agent Juan de Miralles, had died, and he continued his inquiries throughout the rest of the war. Washington eventually made contact with a private company, who then solicited help from [William Carmicheal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Carmichael_(diplomat)) (Chargé d'Affaires to the Spanish court*)* to relay a message to the Spanish Secretary of State. Charles III was more than happy to gift Washington two prized jacks; Washington had done it, and had even strengthened relations between the USA and Spain. Now that's diplomacy. One jack, sadly, passed away during the crossing, yet the other made it to Gloucester, MA, in September 1785, reaching Mount Vernon in December. 'Royal Gift' had arrived, and [Washington spread the word](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-04-02-0139) about the mighty jack, yet the first mating season proved fruitless, as neighbouring plantation owners were unsure about how mules mate with mares (female horses). Apart from that first season, Royal Gift appeared in the adverts of Virginia and Maryland newspapers, and there was considerable interest in what Washington was doing up in Mount Vernon. Even after becoming president in 1789, Washington kept up to date about the health of Royal Gift, even going so far as to [purchase mares](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-04-02-0074) to help with the breeding programme. The jack was [sent down](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0155) to South Carolina as long as Washington got a share of the profits in 1791, and in September travelled to Sandy Hill. Sadly, Royal Gift was afflicted by a hoof-related injury, carrying out two mating seasons on a plantation north of Charleston before dying in 1796. But Washington's venture had proved to be successful, with Mount Vernon boasting a herd of nearly 60 mules by the end of the 18th century. 'Father of the Nation' is one thing, but 'Father of the American Mule'? That tops it, right?
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
In April 1633, [Galileo Galilei](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Galileo-Galilei) begins his [trial of heresy](https://famous-trials.com/galileotrial/1014-home) at the hands of inquisitor [Father Vincenzo Maculani da Firenzuola](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincenzo_Maculani) for his beliefs in how the Earth revolves around the sun. Galileo had already been in trouble over this whole ordeal in 1616, where he was forbidden to continue holing onto this belief, and defended himself by saying that he was simply promoting discussion by publishing works on the subject. He had published his 'Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems', in which three characters (Salviati, Sagredo and Simplicio) discuss astronomy. Unfortunately, [Pope Urban VIII](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Urban_VIII) thought that Simplicio's dedicated following of Ptolemy and Aristotle was a jibe at his own beliefs and criticisms of Copernican heliocentrism (i.e. Earth goes round the sun), so called Galileo to the stand. By June, [the verdict was in](http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/condemnation.html); Galileo was 'vehemently suspect of heresy', and he must 'abjure, curse and detest' these opinions. [He was sentenced to house arrest](https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/galileo-is-accused-of-heresy) for the remainder of his life (he would die in 1642), and 'Dialogue' was placed on the 'Index of Forbidden Books', where it would stay until 1835. Galileo's other works were taken off the list after his death, and it would not be until 31 October 1992 that Pope John Paul II was in the wrong for condemning Galileo; '[John Paul](http://john%20paul%20said%20the%20theologians%20who%20condemned%20galileo%20did%20not%20recognize%20the%20formal%20distinction%20between%20the%20bible%20and%20its%20interpretation/) said the theologians who condemned Galileo did not recognize the formal distinction between the Bible and its interpretation'. So, all good in the end, I guess! Apart from the whole house arrest thing. I mean, we've all been in lockdown for a year and quite frankly it's getting rather tiresome, so imagine 9 years.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
During the Second World War, Messerschmitt were one of the big names in the aircraft industry. The [Bf 109](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109), [Bf 110](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_110) and the [Me 262](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Me_262) were just some of the aircraft supplied by the company, but when Germany was defeated in 1945 this whole building military aircraft business came to an end. So, what is a company to do with all this industrial capacity? Build microcars, of course! Engineer [Fritz Fend](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend), who had served in the Luftwaffe as a technical officer, had started designing three-wheeled cars in the wake of Germany's defeat, eventually building the '[Fend Flitzer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fend_Flitzer)' in 1948. After producing 250 vehicles, Fend brought the venture to an end in 1951, but decided to start a new project; the Fend 150. It was larger than the Flitzer, with a whole two seats! If only there was a company looking for new projects that could help with mass production... Fen approached [Willy Messerschmitt](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Messerschmitt), who happily accepted the proposal to start producing the Fend 150 and the Lastenroller (a three-wheeled moped). By 1953, Messerschmitt had unleashed the [KR175](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR175), with the [KR200](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200) entering the market in 1955. That's all well and good, but its durability had to be tested to ensure it was the best microcar out there. So, in [August 1955](https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/classics/messerschmitt-after-the-bubble-burst/article4259359/), a modified KR200 broke the 24-hour speed record for a three-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine that was under 250cc at the Hockenheimring, clocking in at a stonking 64 mph. That's the reason why we all rive three-wheeled vehi- wait... no, they stopped producing the KR200 in 1964 since cars with four wheels are better apparently. But hey, a record's a record!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
Having defeated the British and helping to secure the independence of the United States, George Washington retired to [Mount Vernon](https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/royal-gift-donkey/) to spend the rest of his days on his plantation. Washington was determined to contribute to the nation's economy and ensure his own financial security, so hatched a plan; [he would breed mules](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/george-washington-saw-future-america-mules-180974182/). At that moment in time, American mules were of low quality, so Washington concluded that importing superior jacks (male donkeys) would improve the mule stock. [Mules](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-03-02-0201) required less food and superior aptitudes compared to other animals, meaning that George would not rest until he got his ass. Spain was the home of the world's best donkeys, yet it was illegal for them to be exported without royal approval. George had tried to [purchase one during the revolution](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-02-02-0001), yet his contact, Spanish agent Juan de Miralles, had died, and he continued his inquiries throughout the rest of the war. Washington eventually made contact with a private company, who then solicited help from [William Carmicheal](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Carmichael_(diplomat)) (Chargé d'Affaires to the Spanish court*)* to relay a message to the Spanish Secretary of State. Charles III was more than happy to gift Washington two prized jacks; Washington had done it, and had even strengthened relations between the USA and Spain. Now that's diplomacy. One jack, sadly, passed away during the crossing, yet the other made it to Gloucester, MA, in September 1785, reaching Mount Vernon in December. 'Royal Gift' had arrived, and [Washington spread the word](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-04-02-0139) about the mighty jack, yet the first mating season proved fruitless, as neighbouring plantation owners were unsure about how mules mate with mares (female horses). Apart from that first season, Royal Gift appeared in the adverts of Virginia and Maryland newspapers, and there was considerable interest in what Washington was doing up in Mount Vernon. Even after becoming president in 1789, Washington kept up to date about the health of Royal Gift, even going so far as to [purchase mares](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-04-02-0074) to help with the breeding programme. The jack was [sent down](https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0155) to South Carolina as long as Washington got a share of the profits in 1791, and in September travelled to Sandy Hill. Sadly, Royal Gift was afflicted by a hoof-related injury, carrying out two mating seasons on a plantation north of Charleston before dying in 1796. But Washington's venture had proved to be successful, with Mount Vernon boasting a herd of nearly 60 mules by the end of the 18th century. 'Father of the Nation' is one thing, but 'Father of the American Mule'? That tops it, right?
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22
Posted by u/johnlen1n 6 days
'[During a stretch between the late 1940s and early 1950s](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/spoonful-sugar-helps-radioactive-oatmeal-go-down-180962424/), Robert Harris, a professor of nutrition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led three different experiments involving 74 Fernald boys, aged 10 to 17. As part of the study, the boys were fed oatmeal and milk laced with radioactive iron and calcium; in another experiment, scientists directly injected the boys with radioactive calcium.'
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1
Posted by u/johnlen1n 6 days
Search for 'Vin Diesel Jeremy Clarkson' and it should pop up
126 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
[In the spring of 1846](https://www.britannica.com/topic/Donner-party), several families from Springfield, Illinois, set off to begin a new life in the west. The families of brothers George and Jacob Donner, plus local businessman James Reed, were all excited to make it out to California and [enjoy a fruitful and peaceful existence on the frontier](https://www.legendsofamerica.com/ca-donnerparty/). They set off in April, joined up with a larger wagon train in May and by July had reached Fort Laramie (in present-day Wyoming). It is here that the company divided, with the majority heading along the Oregon Trail, and the Donners, Reeds and a number of others choosing to take a shortcut; [the Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/donner-party). [Lansford Hastings](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansford_Hastings), in his book 'The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California', described how 'the most direct route, for the California emigrants, would be to leave the Oregon route, about two hundred miles east from Fort Hall; thence bearing West Southwest, to the Salt Lake; and thence continuing down to the bay of St. Francisco, by the route just described'. The ultimate goal was to flood California with immigrants in order to wrest control from Mexico and establish a new republic, and Hastings knew that providing a handy shortcut would help. The Donner party, numbering 87, set off down the pass, and made it to California safe and sound... damn, got my notes muddled up. [Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-should-know-about-the-donner-party) added an extra 125 miles to the journey, and would take the party through the most inhospitable parts of the Great Basin. Reed took the lead after Hastings departed, breaking a new trail and making their way through the Wasatch Mountains and eventually entering the Great Salt Lake Desert. A loss of oxen and wagons slowed progress, only reaching the Humboldt River (where the Cutoff joined back up with the Oregon Trail) by late September. With tensions running high, Reed stabbed another party member, banished to complete the journey on horseback. The rest of the party ascended the Sierra foothills, where Paiute warriors attacked and killed their remaining oxen. On 31 October, they reached what is now the Donner Pass across the Sierra Nevada, where they were met with deep snow. This might become problematic... As they hunkered down, the remaining oxen (their food supply) ran off, and things were getting a little dicey. The best record for that winter in 1846-47 is through the diary kept by Patrick Breen, who recorded the first death (Baylis Williams) on 15 December. The next day, a small party set off across the mountains, where 8 would die... and be eaten. By this time, relief parties were on their way to find the Donner Party, but not everyone could be saved. The last party member to be recovered was Lewis Keseberg on 21 April. Overall, 42 had died, and the [Donner Party](https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/donner-party-cannibalism-nation-west) would pass into legend as a reminder of the harrowing journey to the west. Remember kids; stick to the gosh darn path!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
[In the spring of 1846](https://www.britannica.com/topic/Donner-party), several families from Springfield, Illinois, set off to begin a new life in the west. The families of brothers George and Jacob Donner, plus local businessman James Reed, were all excited to make it out to California and [enjoy a fruitful and peaceful existence on the frontier](https://www.legendsofamerica.com/ca-donnerparty/). They set off in April, joined up with a larger wagon train in May and by July had reached Fort Laramie (in present-day Wyoming). It is here that the company divided, with the majority heading along the Oregon Trail, and the Donners, Reeds and a number of others choosing to take a shortcut; [the Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/donner-party). [Lansford Hastings](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansford_Hastings), in his book 'The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California', described how 'the most direct route, for the California emigrants, would be to leave the Oregon route, about two hundred miles east from Fort Hall; thence bearing West Southwest, to the Salt Lake; and thence continuing down to the bay of St. Francisco, by the route just described'. The ultimate goal was to flood California with immigrants in order to wrest control from Mexico and establish a new republic, and Hastings knew that providing a handy shortcut would help. The Donner party, numbering 87, set off down the pass, and made it to California safe and sound... damn, got my notes muddled up. [Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-should-know-about-the-donner-party) added an extra 125 miles to the journey, and would take the party through the most inhospitable parts of the Great Basin. Reed took the lead after Hastings departed, breaking a new trail and making their way through the Wasatch Mountains and eventually entering the Great Salt Lake Desert. A loss of oxen and wagons slowed progress, only reaching the Humboldt River (where the Cutoff joined back up with the Oregon Trail) by late September. With tensions running high, Reed stabbed another party member, banished to complete the journey on horseback. The rest of the party ascended the Sierra foothills, where Paiute warriors attacked and killed their remaining oxen. On 31 October, they reached what is now the Donner Pass across the Sierra Nevada, where they were met with deep snow. This might become problematic... As they hunkered down, the remaining oxen (their food supply) ran off, and things were getting a little dicey. The best record for that winter in 1846-47 is through the diary kept by Patrick Breen, who recorded the first death (Baylis Williams) on 15 December. The next day, a small party set off across the mountains, where 8 would die... and be eaten. By this time, relief parties were on their way to find the Donner Party, but not everyone could be saved. The last party member to be recovered was Lewis Keseberg on 21 April. Overall, 42 had died, and the [Donner Party](https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/donner-party-cannibalism-nation-west) would pass into legend as a reminder of the harrowing journey to the west. Remember kids; stick to the gosh darn path!
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430
Posted by u/johnlen1n 6 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a [pigeon attack](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T) orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
74 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
[In the spring of 1846](https://www.britannica.com/topic/Donner-party), several families from Springfield, Illinois, set off to begin a new life in the west. The families of brothers George and Jacob Donner, plus local businessman James Reed, were all excited to make it out to California and [enjoy a fruitful and peaceful existence on the frontier](https://www.legendsofamerica.com/ca-donnerparty/). They set off in April, joined up with a larger wagon train in May and by July had reached Fort Laramie (in present-day Wyoming). It is here that the company divided, with the majority heading along the Oregon Trail, and the Donners, Reeds and a number of others choosing to take a shortcut; [the Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/donner-party). [Lansford Hastings](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansford_Hastings), in his book 'The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California', described how 'the most direct route, for the California emigrants, would be to leave the Oregon route, about two hundred miles east from Fort Hall; thence bearing West Southwest, to the Salt Lake; and thence continuing down to the bay of St. Francisco, by the route just described'. The ultimate goal was to flood California with immigrants in order to wrest control from Mexico and establish a new republic, and Hastings knew that providing a handy shortcut would help. The Donner party, numbering 87, set off down the pass, and made it to California safe and sound... damn, got my notes muddled up. [Hastings Cutoff](https://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-should-know-about-the-donner-party) added an extra 125 miles to the journey, and would take the party through the most inhospitable parts of the Great Basin. Reed took the lead after Hastings departed, breaking a new trail and making their way through the Wasatch Mountains and eventually entering the Great Salt Lake Desert. A loss of oxen and wagons slowed progress, only reaching the Humboldt River (where the Cutoff joined back up with the Oregon Trail) by late September. With tensions running high, Reed stabbed another party member, banished to complete the journey on horseback. The rest of the party ascended the Sierra foothills, where Paiute warriors attacked and killed their remaining oxen. On 31 October, they reached what is now the Donner Pass across the Sierra Nevada, where they were met with deep snow. This might become problematic... As they hunkered down, the remaining oxen (their food supply) ran off, and things were getting a little dicey. The best record for that winter in 1846-47 is through the diary kept by Patrick Breen, who recorded the first death (Baylis Williams) on 15 December. The next day, a small party set off across the mountains, where 8 would die... and be eaten. By this time, relief parties were on their way to find the Donner Party, but not everyone could be saved. The last party member to be recovered was Lewis Keseberg on 21 April. Overall, 42 had died, and the [Donner Party](https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/donner-party-cannibalism-nation-west) would pass into legend as a reminder of the harrowing journey to the west. Remember kids; stick to the gosh darn path!
2 Comments Share Save
15
Posted by u/johnlen1n 6 days
'[During a stretch between the late 1940s and early 1950s](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/spoonful-sugar-helps-radioactive-oatmeal-go-down-180962424/), Robert Harris, a professor of nutrition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led three different experiments involving 74 Fernald boys, aged 10 to 17. As part of the study, the boys were fed oatmeal and milk laced with radioactive iron and calcium; in another experiment, scientists directly injected the boys with radioactive calcium.'
1 Comments Share Save
27
Posted by u/johnlen1n 6 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a [pigeon attack](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T) orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
18 Comments Share Save
1
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a [pigeon attack](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T) orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
1 Comments Share Save
6
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a [pigeon attack](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T) orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 6 days
It's 1896, and [Henry Ford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Ford) has just run into his boyhood hero [Thomas Edison](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Edison) at an Edison Illuminating Company in New York. Ford had taken up a job at Edison's company, worked up to the role of chief engineer and was working on this motorised vehicle called a '[Quadricycle](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Quadricycle)' (sounds like bollocks to me). Ford proceeded to have a bit of a fanboy moment, snapping a few pictures of Edison and explaining his concept to the inventor. Edison was convinced electric cars were the future, but upon hearing of Ford's work he slammed his fist down and exclaimed, 'young man, that’s the thing! You have it! I think you are on to something! I encourage you to continue your pursuits!'. Ford had his hero's blessing, and the rest is history in terms of the Ford Motoring Company. But this encounter sparked a lifelong friendship. Fast forward to 1914, and Edison's laboratory and factory has burnt down, likely due to a [pigeon attack](https://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-life-of-nikola-tesla-2015-10?r=US&IR=T) orchestrated by [Nikola Tesla](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikola-Tesla). Upon hearing the news, [Ford handed Edison a cheque](https://thriveglobal.com/stories/thomas-edison-made-henry-ford-believe-in-himself-and-got-a-friend-for-life/) that would cover the insurance, along with a note saying Edison could have more if needed. From then on, the pair would embark on [road trips](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/71190/strange-story-thomas-edisons-last-breath) across the country, with the likes of [Harvey Firestone](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Harvey-S-Firestone) (of Firestone Tire & Rubber Company fame), naturalist [John Burroughs](https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Burroughs) and botanist [Luther Burbank](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Luther-Burbank); even [President Warren G. Harding tagged along](https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-invention-of-the-summer-road-trip-11561780860)! In 1916, [Ford moved down](https://slate.com/human-interest/2016/02/thomas-edison-gave-his-last-breath-to-henry-ford-and-it-now-resides-in-a-museum-in-dearborn-michigan.html) to Florida to be with his ageing friend and, as Thomas Edison's life began to draw to a close, [Henry Ford purchased a wheelchair](https://fordeurope.blogspot.com/2019/02/the-enduring-friendship-of-thomas.html) so the two friends could race one another (imagine the wagers on those races). At a ceremony in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Edison's lightbulb, Edison was overcome with emotion, and [said](https://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/LIGHT%27S%20GOLDEN%20JUBILEE.pdf) 'as to Henry Ford, words are inadequate to express my feelings. I can only say to you, that in the fullest and richest meaning of the term—he is my friend'. The pair of Ford and Edison have quite... well, negative perceptions. [Ford](https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/popular-topics/henry-ford-and-anti-semitism-a-complex-story)'s anti-union stance and firm anti-Semitism are commonly mentioned, as are Edison's tendencies to patent absolutely everything and electrocute an animal or two (although Edison has had a [bit of redemption](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/topsy-elephant-was-victim-her-captors-not-really-thomas-edison-180961611/#:~:text=During%20the%20War%20of%20the,%2C%20calves%2C%20even%20a%20horse.) in recent times), but the thought of Edison and Ford drifting round corners in their wheelchairs is pretty bizarre and wonderful. Indeed, just to confirm the bond between them, [it is said](https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/edisons-last-breath-henry-ford-museum) that when Edison passed in 1931, Ford requested for a test tube to be held next to Edison's mouth so his final breath could be captured. Slightly creepy, but I guess that's how some friendships go.
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8
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
It's 1 January 1962, and some lads from Liverpool are at Decca Studios in north London ready to audition in their hopes of securing a record deal. The Beatles, composed of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Pete Best (Ringo Starr would join the band in 1962), were ready to take the world by storm... [but the company had other ideas](https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/man-who-rejected-beatles-6782008.html). The group [recorded 15 songs](https://www.openculture.com/2012/11/hear_the_1962_beatles_demo_that_decca_rejected_guitar_groups_are_on_their_way_out_mr_epstein.html) in the studio, yet it wasn't enough to sway Decca Records. Indeed, Head of A&R Dick Rowe told manager Brian Epstein that 'guitar groups were on the way out', and that these lads had no hope of making it in the world of music. Instead, Decca signed Brian Poole and the Tremeloes who would go on to fame and stardom! Nope, wait, I got my notes mixed up; the Beatles ended up signing with Parlophone, releasing their first album 'Please Please Me' in 1963. It would set a run in which 11 of their 12 albums would reach number 1 in the UK charts. With tours across the country and a leading role in the 'British Invasion', it's fair to say that Decca made a big woopsie.
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109
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
In February 1950, Wisconsin senator [Joseph McCarthy](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-McCarthy) rose to prominence after giving a [speech](http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456) in West Virginia stating that 205 communists had infiltrated the State Department. Everyone went *nuts*, and Joseph found himself in the spotlight, which was all he really desired. Not surprising, since 'Tail-Gunner Joe' did enjoy spinning the truth to meet his own ends (his nickname makes one think of acts of bravery, but he was a gunner-observer in the Pacific and didn't see much combat). But Joe got all he ever wanted, and [began his campaign](https://www.britannica.com/topic/McCarthyism) to take down the communists. By 1952, McCarthy was chairman of the Committee on Government Operations of the Senate, overseeing hearings and inquiries into any individual or organisation that could be a hub for those rowdy reds. Then McCarthy went too far; he went after the army in 1953. This certainly caught the attention of Dwight Eisenhower (you know, the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War and the president), who had been passive despite McCarthy criticising his administration and threatening to break the Republican party apart. Once it turned out that McCarthy had no concrete evidence, the army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel [Roy Cohn](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn) of giving favourable treatment to Gerard David Schine (former McCarthy aide), who was a private in the army. The end was nigh for McCarthy. For 36 days, the nation tuned in to see the once unstoppable McCarthy torn limb from limb as the hearings undermined his influence and popularity after numerous accusations against the army. [Joseph Nye Welch](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_N._Welch) shouted down McCarthy's defence, asking if he had any sense of decency left, which was met with applause from the recess. It is with no surprise then that, in December 1954, McCarthy was 'condemned' by the Senate and was left with reputation tarnished. Hope Roy Cohn got what he deserved too... no, wait, he became an attorney and [helped some real estate bloke become president](https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/06/donald-trump-roy-cohn-relationship).
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'[During a stretch between the late 1940s and early 1950s](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/spoonful-sugar-helps-radioactive-oatmeal-go-down-180962424/), Robert Harris, a professor of nutrition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led three different experiments involving 74 Fernald boys, aged 10 to 17. As part of the study, the boys were fed oatmeal and milk laced with radioactive iron and calcium; in another experiment, scientists directly injected the boys with radioactive calcium.'
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191
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
[The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO](https://www.nato.int/)) was formed in 1949, with the purpose of this set of defensive alliances being that, if one member is attacked, other members would come to their aid. Essentially, this was because the Soviet Union were getting rather large and it was feared that their communist ways would spread further west and cause an awful lot of problems. This didn't, however, stop [Vyacheslav Molotov](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Vyacheslav-Molotov) proposing that the USSR should join anyway. All this came about after the [Berlin Conference in February 1954](https://www.historycentral.com/Europe/4PwrMeeting.html), in which Molotov proposed greater European cooperation an a unite Germany, although the whole issue of free elections ended that proposal promptly. But [Molotov was determined to improve relations](https://www.wearethemighty.com/mighty-history/russia-tried-to-join-nato/), so wrote a [memo](https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/molotovs-proposal-the-ussr-join-nato-march-1954) to both [Georgy Malenkov](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Georgy-Maksimilianovich-Malenkov) and [Nikita Khrushchev](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nikita-Sergeyevich-Khrushchev) on how, if the aggressive tendencies of NATO were dropped, then the USSR would happily join. That's all well an good, but the three powers who received the proposal (Britain, France and the United States) awkwardly looked at one another. Joining NATO would mean the USSR had to submit to NATO's military planning an even consider democratic reforms (gasp!). The proposal was discussed in Paris in [April 1954](http://euromaidanpress.com/2017/03/31/why-did-soviet-union-fail-to-join-nato-in-1954/), where the Soviet and Chinese opposition during the Korean War was a key factor in the proposal being ultimately rejected. The three major powers sent a [response](https://archives.nato.int/uploads/r/null/3/7/37267/RDC_54_215_BIL.pdf), noting that 'it \[was\] unnecessary to emphasise the completely unreal character of such a suggestion'. A firm kick to the groin, which was followed up by the Federal Republic of Germany receiving an invitation to join NATO in 1955 due to their policies of denazification. No wonder that, in May 1955, the [Warsaw Pact](https://www.britannica.com/event/Warsaw-Pact) was formed. Why can't we all get along?
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
It's 1 January 1962, and some lads from Liverpool are at Decca Studios in north London ready to audition in their hopes of securing a record deal. The Beatles, composed of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Pete Best (Ringo Starr would join the band in 1962), were ready to take the world by storm... [but the company had other ideas](https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/man-who-rejected-beatles-6782008.html). The group [recorded 15 songs](https://www.openculture.com/2012/11/hear_the_1962_beatles_demo_that_decca_rejected_guitar_groups_are_on_their_way_out_mr_epstein.html) in the studio, yet it wasn't enough to sway Decca Records. Indeed, Head of A&R Dick Rowe told manager Brian Epstein that 'guitar groups were on the way out', and that these lads had no hope of making it in the world of music. Instead, Decca signed Brian Poole and the Tremeloes who would go on to fame and stardom! Nope, wait, I got my notes mixed up; the Beatles ended up signing with Parlophone, releasing their first album 'Please Please Me' in 1963. It would set a run in which 11 of their 12 albums would reach number 1 in the UK charts. With tours across the country and a leading role in the 'British Invasion', it's fair to say that Decca made a big woopsie.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'[During a stretch between the late 1940s and early 1950s](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/spoonful-sugar-helps-radioactive-oatmeal-go-down-180962424/), Robert Harris, a professor of nutrition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led three different experiments involving 74 Fernald boys, aged 10 to 17. As part of the study, the boys were fed oatmeal and milk laced with radioactive iron and calcium; in another experiment, scientists directly injected the boys with radioactive calcium.'
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3
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
During the Second World War, Messerschmitt were one of the big names in the aircraft industry. The [Bf 109](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109), [Bf 110](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_110) and the [Me 262](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Me_262) were just some of the aircraft supplied by the company, but when Germany was defeated in 1945 this whole building military aircraft business came to an end. So, what is a company to do with all this industrial capacity? Build microcars, of course! Engineer [Fritz Fend](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend), who had served in the Luftwaffe as a technical officer, had started designing three-wheeled cars in the wake of Germany's defeat, eventually building the '[Fend Flitzer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fend_Flitzer)' in 1948. After producing 250 vehicles, Fend brought the venture to an end in 1951, but decided to start a new project; the Fend 150. It was larger than the Flitzer, with a whole two seats! If only there was a company looking for new projects that could help with mass production... Fen approached [Willy Messerschmitt](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Messerschmitt), who happily accepted the proposal to start producing the Fend 150 and the Lastenroller (a three-wheeled moped). By 1953, Messerschmitt had unleashed the [KR175](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR175), with the [KR200](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200) entering the market in 1955. That's all well and good, but its durability had to be tested to ensure it was the best microcar out there. So, in [August 1955](https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/classics/messerschmitt-after-the-bubble-burst/article4259359/), a modified KR200 broke the 24-hour speed record for a three-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine that was under 250cc at the Hockenheimring, clocking in at a stonking 64 mph. That's the reason why we all rive three-wheeled vehi- wait... no, they stopped producing the KR200 in 1964 since cars with four wheels are better apparently. But hey, a record's a record!
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5
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
'Monkey talk, jungle squeals, grunts and squeaks and gasps suggestive of calf love are camouflaged by a few feverish notes and admitted in homes where the thing itself, unaided by scanned music,” would be stamped out in horror. The fluttering music sheets disclose expressions taken directly from the cesspools of modern capitals, to be made the daily slang, the thoughtlessly hummed remarks of school boys and girls' [*Quoted*](https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_International_Jew/Volume_3/Chapter_47) *from Henry Ford's 'The International Jew', who proceeded to push square dancing as a more* [*wholesome*](https://qz.com/1153516/americas-wholesome-square-dancing-tradition-is-a-tool-of-white-supremacy/)*, American alternative to jazz*
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'[During a stretch between the late 1940s and early 1950s](https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/spoonful-sugar-helps-radioactive-oatmeal-go-down-180962424/), Robert Harris, a professor of nutrition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, led three different experiments involving 74 Fernald boys, aged 10 to 17. As part of the study, the boys were fed oatmeal and milk laced with radioactive iron and calcium; in another experiment, scientists directly injected the boys with radioactive calcium.'
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5
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
'The [Prince Philip movement](http://princephilipmovement.weebly.com/) is a cult based in the island of Tanna in Vanuatu, off the coast of Australia. Specifically, the Yaohnanan tribe on the island worships the Duke of Edinburgh as a deity. To some, the belief is an [offshoot](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cargo_cult) of the [John Frum cult](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Frum), which can also be found on Tanna. [The cult was formed](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/63268/cult-prince-philip) in the late 1950's-early 1960's, and is still strong today. The mixing of the outside world with the tribe's traditional values serves to keep their culture alive, and they believe that Prince Philip originated from Tanna and is keeping their culture alive in England.'
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3
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'The [Prince Philip movement](http://princephilipmovement.weebly.com/) is a cult based in the island of Tanna in Vanuatu, off the coast of Australia. Specifically, the Yaohnanan tribe on the island worships the Duke of Edinburgh as a deity. To some, the belief is an [offshoot](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cargo_cult) of the [John Frum cult](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Frum), which can also be found on Tanna. [The cult was formed](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/63268/cult-prince-philip) in the late 1950's-early 1960's, and is still strong today. The mixing of the outside world with the tribe's traditional values serves to keep their culture alive, and they believe that Prince Philip originated from Tanna and is keeping their culture alive in England.'
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'The [Prince Philip movement](http://princephilipmovement.weebly.com/) is a cult based in the island of Tanna in Vanuatu, off the coast of Australia. Specifically, the Yaohnanan tribe on the island worships the Duke of Edinburgh as a deity. To some, the belief is an [offshoot](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cargo_cult) of the [John Frum cult](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Frum), which can also be found on Tanna. [The cult was formed](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/63268/cult-prince-philip) in the late 1950's-early 1960's, and is still strong today. The mixing of the outside world with the tribe's traditional values serves to keep their culture alive, and they believe that Prince Philip originated from Tanna and is keeping their culture alive in England.'
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
In February 1950, Wisconsin senator [Joseph McCarthy](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-McCarthy) rose to prominence after giving a [speech](http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456) in West Virginia stating that 205 communists had infiltrated the State Department. Everyone went *nuts*, and Joseph found himself in the spotlight, which was all he really desired. Not surprising, since 'Tail-Gunner Joe' did enjoy spinning the truth to meet his own ends (his nickname makes one think of acts of bravery, but he was a gunner-observer in the Pacific and didn't see much combat). But Joe got all he ever wanted, and [began his campaign](https://www.britannica.com/topic/McCarthyism) to take down the communists. By 1952, McCarthy was chairman of the Committee on Government Operations of the Senate, overseeing hearings and inquiries into any individual or organisation that could be a hub for those rowdy reds. Then McCarthy went too far; he went after the army in 1953. This certainly caught the attention of Dwight Eisenhower (you know, the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War and the president), who had been passive despite McCarthy criticising his administration and threatening to break the Republican party apart. Once it turned out that McCarthy had no concrete evidence, the army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel [Roy Cohn](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn) of giving favourable treatment to Gerard David Schine (former McCarthy aide), who was a private in the army. The end was nigh for McCarthy. For 36 days, the nation tuned in to see the once unstoppable McCarthy torn limb from limb as the hearings undermined his influence and popularity after numerous accusations against the army. [Joseph Nye Welch](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_N._Welch) shouted down McCarthy's defence, asking if he had any sense of decency left, which was met with applause from the recess. It is with no surprise then that, in December 1954, McCarthy was 'condemned' by the Senate and was left with reputation tarnished. Hope Roy Cohn got what he deserved too... no, wait, he became an attorney and [helped some real estate bloke become president](https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/06/donald-trump-roy-cohn-relationship).
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32
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
\`[From the first moments of the Hitler regime in 1933](https://www.huffpost.com/entry/ibm-holocaust_b_1301691), IBM used its exclusive punch card technology and its global monopoly on information technology to organise, systematise, and accelerate Hitler’s anti-Jewish program, step by step facilitating the tightening noose. The punch cards, machinery, training, servicing, and special project work, such as population census and identification, was managed directly by IBM headquarters in New York, and later through its subsidiaries in Germany, known as Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft (DEHOMAG), Poland, Holland, France, Switzerland, and other European countries.'
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877
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
[In November 1970](https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/11/13/oregon-whale-explosion-anniversary/), a 14 metre long sperm whale washed ashore at Florence, Oregon. Weighing in at over 7000 kilograms, this wouldn't be a simple 'push it back in the sea' sort of solution. Oregon's Highway Division needed to sort out this problem immediately, as the whale carcass was starting to rot. [Perhaps dynamite will do the trick](https://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/2013/10/george_thornton_the_odot_engin.html)? [450 kg of dynamite was brought in to blow this whale to smithereens](https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63143771/road-crews-to-blow-up-whale-near/). The thinking behind the whole plot was that exploding the whale would make clean up much easier, as the whale would now just be chunks that could be easily disposed of. KATU-TV reporter Paul Linnman was on hand to describe the scene, and on 12 November 1970 the dynamite was detonated... and it was a shit show. Turns out they had [used far too much dynamite](https://web.archive.org/web/20120321201205/http://www.austinpowder.com/BlastersGuide/docs/pib/Dynamite%20Series.PDF) to remove the whale, and blubber was thrown up into the sky. It landed on nearby buildings, car parks and the assembled crowd. Indeed, the carcass was still there, and birds that engineers hoped would start picking away at the whale were scared off by the explosion. Head engineer George Thornton was certain that it went exactly as planned, but '[the blast funneled a hole in the sand under the whale](http://www.offbeatoregon.com/H001_ExplodWhale.html)'. Other than that small snag, it went swimmingly! Linnman signed off his story saying that 'it might be concluded that, should a whale ever be washed ashore in Lane County again, those in charge will not only remember what to do, they'll certainly remember what not to do'. It's true; when sperm whales washed up on a nearby beach in [1979](https://web.archive.org/web/20110717092953/http://tafkac.org/animals/exploding.whale/son_of_blubber.html), the bodies were burned and buried.
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34
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
[On 5 December 1865](https://calendar.eji.org/racial-injustice/mar/16), Mississippi's state legislature voted against ratifying the Thirteenth Amendment (you know, the one over slavery) due to their reliance on a slave economy. Don't panic; they'll get round to it... by the end of the 20th century. Gregory Watson, a clerk in the Texas Legislature, discovered that it still hadn't been ratified, so raised the issue and managed to get it before the Mississippi legislature in March 1995. Sorted, right? Well... no. They didn't send the right documents to the federal register, so it remained unofficial until [2013](https://www.cbsnews.com/news/after-148-years-mississippi-finally-ratifies-13th-amendment-which-banned-slavery/), after two residents watched the film 'Lincoln' and did some digging behind the amendment's rejection. So, thanks to Daniel Day-Lewis, slavery in Mississippi had come to an end. No wonder he won an Oscar and snagged a knighthood as well!
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'Monkey talk, jungle squeals, grunts and squeaks and gasps suggestive of calf love are camouflaged by a few feverish notes and admitted in homes where the thing itself, unaided by scanned music,” would be stamped out in horror. The fluttering music sheets disclose expressions taken directly from the cesspools of modern capitals, to be made the daily slang, the thoughtlessly hummed remarks of school boys and girls' [*Quoted*](https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_International_Jew/Volume_3/Chapter_47) *from Henry Ford's 'The International Jew', who proceeded to push square dancing as a more* [*wholesome*](https://qz.com/1153516/americas-wholesome-square-dancing-tradition-is-a-tool-of-white-supremacy/)*, American alternative to jazz*
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
In February 1950, Wisconsin senator [Joseph McCarthy](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-McCarthy) rose to prominence after giving a [speech](http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456) in West Virginia stating that 205 communists had infiltrated the State Department. Everyone went *nuts*, and Joseph found himself in the spotlight, which was all he really desired. Not surprising, since 'Tail-Gunner Joe' did enjoy spinning the truth to meet his own ends (his nickname makes one think of acts of bravery, but he was a gunner-observer in the Pacific and didn't see much combat). But Joe got all he ever wanted, and [began his campaign](https://www.britannica.com/topic/McCarthyism) to take down the communists. By 1952, McCarthy was chairman of the Committee on Government Operations of the Senate, overseeing hearings and inquiries into any individual or organisation that could be a hub for those rowdy reds. Then McCarthy went too far; he went after the army in 1953. This certainly caught the attention of Dwight Eisenhower (you know, the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War and the president), who had been passive despite McCarthy criticising his administration and threatening to break the Republican party apart. Once it turned out that McCarthy had no concrete evidence, the army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel [Roy Cohn](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn) of giving favourable treatment to Gerard David Schine (former McCarthy aide), who was a private in the army. The end was nigh for McCarthy. For 36 days, the nation tuned in to see the once unstoppable McCarthy torn limb from limb as the hearings undermined his influence and popularity after numerous accusations against the army. [Joseph Nye Welch](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_N._Welch) shouted down McCarthy's defence, asking if he had any sense of decency left, which was met with applause from the recess. It is with no surprise then that, in December 1954, McCarthy was 'condemned' by the Senate and was left with reputation tarnished. Hope Roy Cohn got what he deserved too... no, wait, he became an attorney and [helped some real estate bloke become president](https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/06/donald-trump-roy-cohn-relationship).
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
During the Second World War, Messerschmitt were one of the big names in the aircraft industry. The [Bf 109](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_109), [Bf 110](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Bf_110) and the [Me 262](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_Me_262) were just some of the aircraft supplied by the company, but when Germany was defeated in 1945 this whole building military aircraft business came to an end. So, what is a company to do with all this industrial capacity? Build microcars, of course! Engineer [Fritz Fend](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Fend), who had served in the Luftwaffe as a technical officer, had started designing three-wheeled cars in the wake of Germany's defeat, eventually building the '[Fend Flitzer](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fend_Flitzer)' in 1948. After producing 250 vehicles, Fend brought the venture to an end in 1951, but decided to start a new project; the Fend 150. It was larger than the Flitzer, with a whole two seats! If only there was a company looking for new projects that could help with mass production... Fen approached [Willy Messerschmitt](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Messerschmitt), who happily accepted the proposal to start producing the Fend 150 and the Lastenroller (a three-wheeled moped). By 1953, Messerschmitt had unleashed the [KR175](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR175), with the [KR200](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200) entering the market in 1955. That's all well and good, but its durability had to be tested to ensure it was the best microcar out there. So, in [August 1955](https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/reviews/classics/messerschmitt-after-the-bubble-burst/article4259359/), a modified KR200 broke the 24-hour speed record for a three-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine that was under 250cc at the Hockenheimring, clocking in at a stonking 64 mph. That's the reason why we all rive three-wheeled vehi- wait... no, they stopped producing the KR200 in 1964 since cars with four wheels are better apparently. But hey, a record's a record!
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2
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
Fancy some quick reading? How about the [1973](https://www.ranker.com/list/nestle-baby-formula-boycott/melissa-sartore) article published in 'The New Internationalist' on how Nestle convinced mothers in third world nations that instant formula was better for their babies compared to breast feeding? The formula required water, which would be contaminated with disease, leading to increased child mortality rates. Indeed, no breastfeeding means the mother's milk dries up and therefore more formula would be required. Good thing Nestle have stopped all their nefarious actions...
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'Monkey talk, jungle squeals, grunts and squeaks and gasps suggestive of calf love are camouflaged by a few feverish notes and admitted in homes where the thing itself, unaided by scanned music,” would be stamped out in horror. The fluttering music sheets disclose expressions taken directly from the cesspools of modern capitals, to be made the daily slang, the thoughtlessly hummed remarks of school boys and girls' [*Quoted*](https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_International_Jew/Volume_3/Chapter_47) *from Henry Ford's 'The International Jew', who proceeded to push square dancing as a more* [*wholesome*](https://qz.com/1153516/americas-wholesome-square-dancing-tradition-is-a-tool-of-white-supremacy/)*, American alternative to jazz*
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23
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
'The whole temper and tradition of the place \[Princeton\] are such that no negro has ever applied for admission, and it seems extremely unlikely that the question will ever assume a practical form' [*Woodrow Wilson, 1904*](https://libguides.princeton.edu/c.php?g=84056&p=544526)
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
'Monkey talk, jungle squeals, grunts and squeaks and gasps suggestive of calf love are camouflaged by a few feverish notes and admitted in homes where the thing itself, unaided by scanned music,” would be stamped out in horror. The fluttering music sheets disclose expressions taken directly from the cesspools of modern capitals, to be made the daily slang, the thoughtlessly hummed remarks of school boys and girls' [*Quoted*](https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_International_Jew/Volume_3/Chapter_47) *from Henry Ford's 'The International Jew', who proceeded to push square dancing as a more* [*wholesome*](https://qz.com/1153516/americas-wholesome-square-dancing-tradition-is-a-tool-of-white-supremacy/)*, American alternative to jazz*
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
In February 1950, Wisconsin senator [Joseph McCarthy](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-McCarthy) rose to prominence after giving a [speech](http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456) in West Virginia stating that 205 communists had infiltrated the State Department. Everyone went *nuts*, and Joseph found himself in the spotlight, which was all he really desired. Not surprising, since 'Tail-Gunner Joe' did enjoy spinning the truth to meet his own ends (his nickname makes one think of acts of bravery, but he was a gunner-observer in the Pacific and didn't see much combat). But Joe got all he ever wanted, and [began his campaign](https://www.britannica.com/topic/McCarthyism) to take down the communists. By 1952, McCarthy was chairman of the Committee on Government Operations of the Senate, overseeing hearings and inquiries into any individual or organisation that could be a hub for those rowdy reds. Then McCarthy went too far; he went after the army in 1953. This certainly caught the attention of Dwight Eisenhower (you know, the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War and the president), who had been passive despite McCarthy criticising his administration and threatening to break the Republican party apart. Once it turned out that McCarthy had no concrete evidence, the army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel [Roy Cohn](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn) of giving favourable treatment to Gerard David Schine (former McCarthy aide), who was a private in the army. The end was nigh for McCarthy. For 36 days, the nation tuned in to see the once unstoppable McCarthy torn limb from limb as the hearings undermined his influence and popularity after numerous accusations against the army. [Joseph Nye Welch](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_N._Welch) shouted down McCarthy's defence, asking if he had any sense of decency left, which was met with applause from the recess. It is with no surprise then that, in December 1954, McCarthy was 'condemned' by the Senate and was left with reputation tarnished. Hope Roy Cohn got what he deserved too... no, wait, he became an attorney and [helped some real estate bloke become president](https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/06/donald-trump-roy-cohn-relationship).
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Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
George Lucas was an up and coming director, having delivered the hit film 'American Graffiti' in 1973. When his latest venture about some sort of conflict in space was [in development](https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/43-years-ago-star-wars-creator-george-lucas-made-a-4-billion-decision-even-though-it-had-nothing-to-do-with-money.html), 20th Century Fox weren't really sold on the idea. [They were sure](https://www.businessinsider.com/how-star-wars-made-george-lucas-a-billionaire-2015-12?r=US&IR=T) that the film would not reach the hype of Lucas' previous work, so when George suggested he would take a [$350,000 pay cut](https://www.celebritynetworth.com/articles/entertainment-articles/how-one-genius-decision-made-george-lucas-a-billionaire/) from the proposed $500,000 just to claim the merchandising and sequel rights, Fox were more than happy to sign the deal. [Between 1977-1978](https://www.pymnts.com/news/retail/2019/star-wars-disney-movie-merchandise-revenue/), 'Star Wars' raked in $100 million just in toy sales, earning another $3 billion in revenue over the next 35 years. Then there are the video games, book sales, videos, DVDs and all those licensing deals... wait, and the sequels... and the prequels... and those tie in films... and the next set of sequels... woops. By the time Disney bought the rights, Lucas was worth $5.5 billion; all from taking a pay cut!
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Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
It's 4th July 1698, and a group of 1200 Scots are sailing out of Leith for Panama. That's right! This is the very beginning of the mighty Scottish empire, who for centuries would expand their influence across the globe and establish a legacy that- wait, hang on... nope, that's wrong. This is actually the beginning of the ill-fated '[Darien Scheme](https://www.gla.ac.uk/myglasgow/library/files/special/exhibns/month/may2005.html)' that would plunge Scotland into financial ruin. Scotland, even before the disaster that was their attempted colonisation of Panama, was already suffering due to experiencing a rather cold decade and being pestered by the pesky English to the south. But all is not lost, as William Paterson stepped forward with a proposition. He persuaded the Scottish elite to invest in a scheme that would see Scots travel to Panama and establish a colony there to enhance Scottish prestige. Paterson was convinced that any nation, regardless of size, could [seize key territory and advance their trading power](https://theconversation.com/scotlands-darien-disaster-the-first-great-financial-scandal-in-panama-57441). Settling in Panama would open up Scottish trade to the world; what could possibly go wrong? [A lot](http://www.gutenberg-e.org/gdi01/gall04.html). The 'Darien Scheme' was an absolute disaster for Scotland. First of all, the Spanish were still in control of Panama, so didn't really appreciate the Scots rocking up one day and saying 'we live here now' (ironic, right?). The 5 ships that left Leith were laden with goods such as combs and mirrors, which were destined for the natives of Panama, along with boxes full of wigs. New Caledonia was also, as Paterson described it, '[neither fit to be fortified nor planted, nor indeed for men to lie upon](http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/scotland_darien_01.shtml)'. By March 1699, after torrential rainfall and disease ravaged the colony, over 200 colonists had died, and news was soon received that the English were now embargoing trade with Scotland. With the Spanish planning on raiding the colony, the settlers abandoned New Caledonia, with only one ship making it back home. Well, you know the saying; if at first you don't succeed, try, try again. Expedition number two (August 1699), with 1300 settlers across 3 ships, did not fare any better. 160 died in the crossing, and the colony soon descended into chaos as disease spread. With the Spanish threat still looming, Captain Alexander Campbell of Fonab proposed attacking the Spanish in a pre-emptive strike... and they succeeded! Hooray! But that just made the Spanish angry, so they besieged Fort St Andrew and captured it in March 1700. Scottish morale and prestige was annihilated, with the returning colonists banished from society. Paterson defended his actions, and ended up with a £18,000 pension, while Campbell was awarded the 'Toubacanti Medal' for his services abroad. But the Scottish economy was the true loser, as the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies had lost over £200,000 in the venture. The Scottish nobility, seeing how the English were starting to flourish abroad, came to the horrible conclusion that there was [only one option to get Scotland the status of a world power](https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofScotland/The-Darien-Scheme/). In 1707, the [Acts of Union](https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/The-Act-of-Union/) were signed, and Great Britain was born. Cue the ominous music...
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Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
It's 1852, and China is once again having a [civil war](https://www.britannica.com/event/Taiping-Rebellion). This time, it's all down to [Hong Xiuquan](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Hong-Xiuquan), the 'Taiping Heavenly King' and self-declared brother of Jesus, waging war against the Qing Dynasty in a bid to convert all of China to the ways of the God Worshipping Society... yeh, we're already off to a crazy start. Hong claimed to have visions of visiting heaven and, after receiving Christian pamphlets, [interpreted these dreams](https://www.history.com/topics/china/taiping-rebellion) as a sign of his relationship to Jesus and his destiny to bring China into the fold of [his unique take on Christianity](https://www.facinghistory.org/nanjing-atrocities/nation-building/seeds-unrest-taiping-movement). The outbreak of hostilities led to famine, bringing forth the decision for all rice exports to be stopped to preserve supplies. This hit the United States hard, with rice prices rising, in San Francisco for example, from [4 cents a pound to 36](https://web.archive.org/web/20070223023720/http://www.sfhistoryencyclopedia.com/articles/n/nortonJoshua.html). Perhaps some ambitious young businessman could take advantage of the situation and corner the rice market... [Joshua Norton](http://www.emperornorton.net/mirror/http/www.zpub.com_80/sf/history/nort.html) had arrived in the United States towards the end of the 1840s, leaving behind his home in Kent to make a living abroad. News of the famine and rice shortage gave Joshua an idea; what if I bought up rice supplies and make a killing on the market? Norton made contact with the 'Glyde', which had returned from Peru with some high quality rice, and bought the whole shipment of 200,000 for $25,000. This is all well and good, but once more shipments from Peru arrived the market was then flooded with rice, causing the price to plummet (that's supply-side economics for you) and leaving Norton with plenty of rice that turned out to be pretty shoddy. [The higher courts in the land](https://cite.case.law/cal/4/355/) did not care for the plights of Norton, and by 1858 he was bankrupt and living in a boarding house. There was only one thing left to do; [declare yourself 'Emperor of the United States'](http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/norton.html). On 17 September 1859, letters were distributed across the city on the country's brand new emperor, who promised to '[make such alterations in the existing laws of the Union as may ameliorate the evils under which the country is laboring, and thereby cause confidence to exist, both at home and abroad, in our stability and integrity](http://www.emperornorton.net/NortonI-Cowan.html)'. Norton issued a decree to abolish Congress due to the '[open violation of the laws](https://web.archive.org/web/20070126205355/http://www.notfrisco.com/colmatales/norton/proclaim.html)' in October 1859, and by March the following year summoned the army to dispose of the officials in Congress. For some reason, the army did nothing and Congress continued to exist; even the Protestant and Catholic churches didn't acknowledge him as emperor in hopes of mending the nation due to the country descending into civil war. Then the Democrats and Republicans had the *nerve* to ignore the emperor's decree of their disbandment in 1869! How dare they! Norton, who had added the title 'Protector of Mexico' to his title in [1861](https://www.historyhit.com/1863-french-troops-capture-mexico-city/) in the wake of French intervention in the region, became a local celebrity. [He strutted through the streets](https://jewcy.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/jews-know-emperor-norton) wearing either a blue or grey jacket to symbolise his neutrality in the civil war, accompanied by the stray dogs [Bummer and Lazarus](https://americacomesalive.com/bummer-and-lazarus-street-dogs-and-friends/). His beaver hat was adorned with a peacock feather and rosette, the gold-plated epaulettes glistening in the sun as he mingled with his subjects, cane in hand. There's no wonder a comic opera was made on Norton ('[Norton the First](http://emperornortontrust.org/blog/2016/7/7/introducing-arena-archive-of-emperor-norton-in-art-music-film)'), not to mention the bonus of eating for free in restaurants and [getting free train rides](https://sfist.com/2017/01/06/the_story_of_emperor_norton_on_the/) around the state courtesy of one [Leland Stanford](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Leland-Stanford), robber baron extraordinaire. The president of Central Pacific Railroad cashed in on the popularity of Norton, who kept making his decrees and declaration that called for change in the country. [Norton wanted](http://emperornortontrust.org/emperor/life) a bridge to be built between San Francisco and Oakland and for fair treatment of Chinese immigrants. His progressive decrees, unfortunately, went unheeded, and in January 1880 the emperor collapsed and died. Norton, contrary to rumours, had died in poverty, [yet donations](https://freetoursbyfoot.com/meet-emperor-norton-first-only-emperor-united-states/) from the Pacific Club meant the late Emperor Norton I had an elaborate funeral ceremony, as the city of San Francisco bid farewell to their beloved Joshua. [The mental health of Norton](https://archive.org/details/sanfranciscoalma00hans_0) had always been questioned after his ascension to emperor, but regardless the story is fascinating and, in my opinion, pretty wholesome. All it took was one guy believing to be Jesus' brother that gave Norton his celebrity and imperial status.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
In February 1950, Wisconsin senator [Joseph McCarthy](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-McCarthy) rose to prominence after giving a [speech](http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456) in West Virginia stating that 205 communists had infiltrated the State Department. Everyone went *nuts*, and Joseph found himself in the spotlight, which was all he really desired. Not surprising, since 'Tail-Gunner Joe' did enjoy spinning the truth to meet his own ends (his nickname makes one think of acts of bravery, but he was a gunner-observer in the Pacific and didn't see much combat). But Joe got all he ever wanted, and [began his campaign](https://www.britannica.com/topic/McCarthyism) to take down the communists. By 1952, McCarthy was chairman of the Committee on Government Operations of the Senate, overseeing hearings and inquiries into any individual or organisation that could be a hub for those rowdy reds. Then McCarthy went too far; he went after the army in 1953. This certainly caught the attention of Dwight Eisenhower (you know, the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War and the president), who had been passive despite McCarthy criticising his administration and threatening to break the Republican party apart. Once it turned out that McCarthy had no concrete evidence, the army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel [Roy Cohn](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn) of giving favourable treatment to Gerard David Schine (former McCarthy aide), who was a private in the army. The end was nigh for McCarthy. For 36 days, the nation tuned in to see the once unstoppable McCarthy torn limb from limb as the hearings undermined his influence and popularity after numerous accusations against the army. [Joseph Nye Welch](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_N._Welch) shouted down McCarthy's defence, asking if he had any sense of decency left, which was met with applause from the recess. It is with no surprise then that, in December 1954, McCarthy was 'condemned' by the Senate and was left with reputation tarnished. Hope Roy Cohn got what he deserved too... no, wait, he became an attorney and [helped some real estate bloke become president](https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/06/donald-trump-roy-cohn-relationship).
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1
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
'[The golden voice](https://miwf.org/timeline/aretha-franklin/) of the ‘Queen of Soul’ is so precious to Michigan residents that in 1986 the Michigan Legislature declared [Aretha Franklin](https://www.biography.com/musician/aretha-franklin)’s voice to be a precious natural resource. The strength and unique quality of her voice, not to mention her inimitable sense of rhythm and styling, set her apart from many vocalists, earning her a permanent place in music history. Her seminal works like ‘[Respect](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FOUqQt3Kg0)’ and ‘[Natural Woman](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEWuAcMWDLY)’ endure as treasures of our time because they possess that ineffable quality of emotional richness that one can only define as ‘soul.’
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
In February 1950, Wisconsin senator [Joseph McCarthy](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-McCarthy) rose to prominence after giving a [speech](http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456) in West Virginia stating that 205 communists had infiltrated the State Department. Everyone went *nuts*, and Joseph found himself in the spotlight, which was all he really desired. Not surprising, since 'Tail-Gunner Joe' did enjoy spinning the truth to meet his own ends (his nickname makes one think of acts of bravery, but he was a gunner-observer in the Pacific and didn't see much combat). But Joe got all he ever wanted, and [began his campaign](https://www.britannica.com/topic/McCarthyism) to take down the communists. By 1952, McCarthy was chairman of the Committee on Government Operations of the Senate, overseeing hearings and inquiries into any individual or organisation that could be a hub for those rowdy reds. Then McCarthy went too far; he went after the army in 1953. This certainly caught the attention of Dwight Eisenhower (you know, the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War and the president), who had been passive despite McCarthy criticising his administration and threatening to break the Republican party apart. Once it turned out that McCarthy had no concrete evidence, the army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel [Roy Cohn](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn) of giving favourable treatment to Gerard David Schine (former McCarthy aide), who was a private in the army. The end was nigh for McCarthy. For 36 days, the nation tuned in to see the once unstoppable McCarthy torn limb from limb as the hearings undermined his influence and popularity after numerous accusations against the army. [Joseph Nye Welch](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_N._Welch) shouted down McCarthy's defence, asking if he had any sense of decency left, which was met with applause from the recess. It is with no surprise then that, in December 1954, McCarthy was 'condemned' by the Senate and was left with reputation tarnished. Hope Roy Cohn got what he deserved too... no, wait, he became an attorney and [helped some real estate bloke become president](https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/06/donald-trump-roy-cohn-relationship).
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464
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
It's June 1959, and Disneyland are preparing for the grand opening of their Monorail system. Everything had been rushed to make sure everything was ready by 14 June, with [Imagineer Bob Gurr](https://d23.com/walt-disney-legend/bob-gurr/) overseeing the project and making sure everything ran smoothly. With Monorail Red only completing its first lap without breaking down [the night before](https://www.wdwopinion.com/richard-nixon-kidnapped-in-disneyland/) its unveiling, it feels like something could go wrong. Hope not; I mean, the Vice President is on his way! [Richard Nixon](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Richard-Nixon) and his family were the guests of honour, arriving at the park on a sweltering hot June day. Bob was the one who had to drive the Monorail, who had parked it at the station for the TV cameras and assembled press to get some good shots of the vehicle. When the entourage that included Nixon, [Walt Disney](https://www.britannica.com/biography/Walt-Disney), [Art Linkletter](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Linkletter), Disneyland security and the Secret Service approached, Disney invited the Nixon family inside the cab to cool off. Gurr fired up the Monorail to turn on the air conditioning, which prompted Walt to say 'Let's go'. Bob was nervous about the Monorail breaking down in front of the cameras, but that fear soon subsided... when he realised the Secret Service were still on the platform. [Walt Disney had accidentally 'kidnapped' Richard Nixon](https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/29778/time-walt-disney-kidnapped-richard-nixon). What could be going through Bob's mind on that lap? Was he worried that the agents were on the phone to Eisenhower, who was poised to lay siege to Disneyland to get his Dick back? Either way, the Monorail pulled into the station, but only for Nixon's daughters Julie and Tricia to shout '[We want to go again](https://www.waltdisney.org/blog/stealing-nixon)!', which Walt was more than happy to do. The train sped by the agents, much to Nixon's delight, prolonging the 'kidnapping' for just one more lap. It wouldn't be the last run in Nixon would have with Disney; after all, it would be at Disney's Contemporary Resort at Walt Disney World that Nixon would declare ['I am not a crook](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sh163n1lJ4M)'. Just wanted to mention that...
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31
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
'[The golden voice](https://miwf.org/timeline/aretha-franklin/) of the ‘Queen of Soul’ is so precious to Michigan residents that in 1986 the Michigan Legislature declared [Aretha Franklin](https://www.biography.com/musician/aretha-franklin)’s voice to be a precious natural resource. The strength and unique quality of her voice, not to mention her inimitable sense of rhythm and styling, set her apart from many vocalists, earning her a permanent place in music history. Her seminal works like ‘[Respect](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FOUqQt3Kg0)’ and ‘[Natural Woman](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEWuAcMWDLY)’ endure as treasures of our time because they possess that ineffable quality of emotional richness that one can only define as ‘soul.’
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2.8k
Posted by u/johnlen1n 1 week
[In 1973](https://www.ranker.com/list/nestle-baby-formula-boycott/melissa-sartore), an article was published in 'The New Internationalist' on how Nestle, who turned to new markets outside of Europe to sell their formula, were convincing mothers in third world nations that instant formula was better for their babies compared to breast feeding. Representatives would dress as nurses and offer samples and advice on how to prepare products. The formula required water, which would be contaminated with disease, leading to increased child mortality rates. Indeed, no breastfeeding means the mother's milk dries up and therefore more formula would be required. A boycott was organised in the 1970s once these revelations came to light, and continues to this day.
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1
Posted by u/[deleted] 1 week
George Lucas was an up and coming director, having delivered the hit film 'American Graffiti' in 1973. When his latest venture about some sort of conflict in space was [in development](https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/43-years-ago-star-wars-creator-george-lucas-made-a-4-billion-decision-even-though-it-had-nothing-to-do-with-money.html), 20th Century Fox weren't really sold on the idea. [They were sure](https://www.businessinsider.com/how-star-wars-made-george-lucas-a-billionaire-2015-12?r=US&IR=T) that the film would not reach the hype of Lucas' previous work, so when George suggested he would take a [$350,000 pay cut](https://www.celebritynetworth.com/articles/entertainment-articles/how-one-genius-decision-made-george-lucas-a-billionaire/) from the proposed $500,000 just to claim the merchandising and sequel rights, Fox were more than happy to sign the deal. [Between 1977-1978](https://www.pymnts.com/news/retail/2019/star-wars-disney-movie-merchandise-revenue/), 'Star Wars' raked in $100 million just in toy sales, earning another $3 billion in revenue over the next 35 years. Then there are the video games, book sales, videos, DVDs and all those licensing deals... wait, and the sequels... and the prequels... and those tie in films... and the next set of sequels... woops. By the time Disney bought the rights, Lucas was worth $5.5 billion; all from taking a pay cut!
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